Posts tagged as: trial

Cycling Team Depart for World Championships

By Richard Bishumba

The national cycling team (Team Rwanda Cycling) travelled to Norway on Thursday night ahead of the 2017 UCI Road World Championships scheduled for September 17-24 in Bergen.

Rwanda will be represented by four riders in the Elite Men and U23 categories. The team is under the tutelage of head coach Sterling Magnell, while Sean Belfast is the mechanic and Obed Ruvogera the physiotherapist.

Riders set to carry the country’s flag at the 10-day competitions include; two-time and reigning Tour du Rwanda champion Valens Ndayisenga, youngster Jean Paul Réne Ukiniwabo and South Africa’s Dimension Data Team duo of Joseph Areruya and Samuel Mugisha.

Team captain Ndayisenga, Magnell as well as Belfast, left the country last night at 10:20pm aboard KLM. However, by press time, Ukiniwabo and Ruvogera were yet to get visas but will join the team later once they secure them.

Based in Italy with Team Dimension Data, youngsters Mugisha and Areruya will join the rest of the team in Norway on September 19.

Ndayisenga will compete in the 31km Elite Men’s Individual Time Trial (ITT) on September 20.

Areruya, Ukiniwabo and Mugisha will compete in U23 category Road Race covering a total distance of 191km before Ndayisenga returns to action on September 24 in the main race, the Elite Men’s 267.5km Road Race.

The annual UCI Road World Championships features three main categories namely; Individual Time Trial (ITT), Team Time Trial (TTT) and the Road races.

The 2016 edition took place in Doha, Qatar while the 2018 Championships will be hosted in Innsbruck, Austria.


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Govt to Sell Exiled Tycoon’s Property

The Rwandan Revenue Authority has placed Kigali’s Union Trade Centre — a $20 million mall owned by exiled tycoon Tribert Rujugiro Ayabatwa — among properties to be auctioned for defaulting on their taxes.

Mr Rujugiro has taken the Rwandan government to the East African Court of Justice for the alleged illegal seizure of his properties.

RRA has published a list of properties up for auction and among them is the mall, which in 2013 was put under the Nyarugenge District Commission of Abandoned Properties.

The government said the property and many others had been put under the management of the Commission of Abandoned Properties for “efficient management,” which among other things includes paying taxes and utility bills.

UTC was put on a list of 14 properties that RRA said “are immovable assets of taxpayers whose properties have been attached and will be auctioned.”

The taxes owed are from 2015, when the building was already in the hands of the Commission of Abandoned Properties.

By press time, The EastAfrican had failed to ascertain how much UTC owes the government.

The EACJ is yet to decide the ongoing case in Arusha in which Mr Rujugiro, who fell out with the government in 2010, seeks to redeem a number of his properties that have been seized.

The case filed in 2013 was dismissed by the First Instance Chamber of the EACJ, but later the Appeal Court ordered the Trial Court to hear it afresh “citing that parties had not been afforded an opportunity to present relevant evidence in support of their respective cases.”

The case is still pending before the trial court and no hearing date has so far been announced.


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South Africa: Man Arrested After Speeding 231km/h in a Jaguar

Photo: Supplied

The South African Police Service has seized the Jaguar F-Type following its owner’s arrest (Supplied).

A man was arrested for driving 231km/h in a Jaguar F-Type on the N4 near Alkmaar, Mpumalanga on Wednesday morning.

Spokesperson for the Mpumalanga department of community safety Joseph Mabuza said the traffic intervention unit pulled the man over at 07:30.

“The speed camera clocked him at the speed and then officers flagged him. He only stopped a few metres after the camera,” Mabuza said.

The 40-year-old was detained at the Nelspruit police station before his court appearance.

He will be charged for reckless and negligent driving.

Source: News24

South Africa

Panayiotou Trial Resumes

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South Africa: Drug Offers New Option for Patients With TB and Aids

By Ashleigh Furlong

Clinical trial shows positive effects of steroid for patients on ARVs

Some patients with Aids who also have TB and a very low CD4 count begin antiretroviral treatment hoping to get better. But they get sicker, temporarily at least.

This is called paradoxical TB-IRIS (Tuberculosis-Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome). Starting antiretroviral therapy begins restoring the immune system, but this can lead to an exaggerated inflammatory response against disease. The patient might have new or worsening symptoms of TB such as fever or lymph node enlargement.

In a recent trial in Khayelitsha patients with HIV and TB were given a medicine called prednisone for four weeks in the hope that the steroid would reduce the likelihood of paradoxical TB-IRIS in high risk patients. The results of the trial were presented by the lead investigator Professor Graeme Meintjes at the annual Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) in Seattle.

Prednisone has been used in an earlier trial for the treatment of TB-IRIS, but in that trial it was only given after the patient had symptoms of TB-IRIS. It had good results: prednisone reduced the symptoms and the amount of time patients were hospitalised.

In the PredART trial of 240 patients there was a “significant reduction” of 30% in TB-IRIS cases in those who took prednisone.

Prednisone is a steroid, in particular a corticosteroid. It is used to treat many different conditions such as allergic disorders, skin conditions and asthma

120 of the patients were put on prednisone and the other 120 on the placebo, both for four weeks. Both groups received TB treatment then antiretroviral therapy. They were followed for a year after. Five deaths occurred in the prednisone group by 12 weeks and another 4 in the placebo group (a small difference that is almost certainly due to chance). In both groups, there were nine patients who were not followed up.

About 47% of the patients in the placebo group developed TB-IRIS compared to 33% in the prednisone group. This difference is unlikely to be due to chance, and so is almost certainly due to prednisone being effective.

There were also only 17 patients who were hospitalised in the prednisone group versus 27 in the placebo one, but Meintjes said that this did not reach statistical significance (in other words it might be due to chance).

The trial selected HIV-positive patients who had not previously had antiretroviral therapy and had a CD4 count of 100 or less (a very low value, which means they had advanced Aids). People with very low CD4 counts are at higher risk of developing TB-IRIS.

Steroid use in HIV positive patients has been associated with increased infection as well as a type of cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma, said Meintjes. Therefore this was monitored during the trial. But the result of the trial shows that the prednisone was well-tolerated with no excess risk of infection or cancer. A likely reason, according to Meintjes, why risk wasn’t increased for these complications was that all patients were on antiretroviral therapy.

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Areruya Wins Bronze Medal At Continental Championships

By Geoffrey Asiimwe

Team Rwanda’s top sprinter Joseph Areruya yesterday put up another spectacular performance to claim a bronze medal at the ongoing 2017 African Continental Championships in Luxor, Egypt in the men U23 Individual Time Trial.

This brings to two the total number of medals scooped by the local riders following Tuesday’s bronze that the team won in the men’s elite Team Time Trial courtesy of Valens Ndayisenga, Areruya, Jean Bosco Nsengimana and Samuel Mugisha.

The South-Africa’s UCI continental Team Dimension Data for Qhubeka rider Areruya was competing in the U23 category for the second time after also debuting in Morocco.

Areruya improved on his 2016 debut performance when he finished in the fourth place and scooped his first continental bronze medal after posting 55 minutes and 56 seconds.

South African Stefan Debod finished in the first place to win a gold medal after clocking 53 minutes and 42 seconds while Hebtom Awet, from Eritrea, won a silver medal after finishing in the second place using 54 minutes and five seconds.

The two also scooped silver and bronze medals in the elite’s category after finishing in the second and third places, respectively, in the combined rankings.

Meanwhile, it was a day to forget for the reigning Tour du Rwanda champion and Rwanda’s most decorated cyclist Ndayisenga who finished in the fifth place.

Ndayisenga, who was competing in the elite’s category for the first time, entered the race as reigning U23 champion which he won last year in Casablanca, Morocco.

However, he covered the 43kilometre distance in 55 minutes and 55 seconds settling for a fifth place.

Eritrean Meron Teshome scooped gold in the elite’s category after covering the 43 kilometre in 53 minutes and 16 seconds, while South Africa’s Smit Willem clinched silver medal after finishing in the second-place posting 54 minutes and 24 seconds.

Meanwhile, Jeanne d’ Arc Girubuntu, the only female rider on the team, failed to defend her silver medal in the elite women category after finishing in a disappointing eighth place.


Men Elite Individual Time Trial

1. Meron Teshome (Eritrea) 0′:53″:16″‘

2. Stefan Debod (South Africa) 0′:53″:42″‘

3. Hebtom Awet (Eritrea) 0′:54″:05″‘

4. Smit Willem (South Africa) 0′:54″:24″‘

5. Valens Ndayisenga (Rwanda) 0′:56″:55″‘

U23 Individual Time Trial

1. Stefan Debod (South Africa) 0′:53″:42″‘

2. Hebtom Awet (Eritrea) 0′:54″:05″‘

3. Joseph Areruya (Rwanda) 0′:55″:56″‘

4. Abederrahmane Bechelaghem (Algeria) 0′:57″:27″‘


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Calls for Probe Into Early Release of Genocide Convicts

By Felly Kimenyi and Athan Tashobya

The National Commission for the Fight against the Genocide (CNLG), has called for a review of the controversial decisions by American judge Theodor Meron concerning masterminds of the Genocide against the Tutsi.

Meron, 86, is the president of the Mechanism of International Criminal Tribunals (MICT), which was established to take on the cases left by the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) that closed last year.

The latest development follows a decision last week by Meron to grant early release to two convicted Genocide masterminds, Ferdinand Nahimana and Father Emmanuel Rukundo who had been incarcerated in Mali.

“CNLG particularly urges the UN Security Council to swiftly review the decisions taken by Judge Theodor Meron and take action to save the credibility of the residual mechanism and international justice at large,” reads a statement issued yesterday by the commission’s Executive Secretary, Dr Jean-Damascene Bizimana.

Nahimana, who was part of the infamous Media Trial by the ICTR, was serving a 30-year sentence before he was granted early release last Wednesday, while the same decision cut short the 25-year sentence for Rukundo, a former military chaplain.

Meron, who also presided over the Appeals Chamber of the UN-backed ICTR before it was taken up by the Mechanism, is also responsible for series of other controversial decisions that saw some of the Genocide masterminds acquitted on appeal, despite convictions on first instance by the Trial Chamber.

Some of those who were acquitted on appeal include Protais Zigiranyirazo, Justin Mugenzi, Prosper Mugiraneza, Augustin Ndindiriyimana, Francois Xavier Nzuwonemeye.

At least five people who were members of the cabinet that executed the Genocide were freed on appeal.

In other instances, Genocide architects like Theoneste Bagosora had their prison sentences reduced from life to 35 years on appeal by Meron, who has also granted early release to eight other convicts besides Nahimana and Rukundo.

“The controversial decisions that have been incessantly taken by Judge Theodor Meron, beg for urgent investigation… these decisions have only served to benefit genocide perpetrators,” reads the statement.

Undue influence

The belief that Meron could have ulterior motives is reinforced by allegations made in 2013 by a member of the then ICTR Appeals Chamber bench, Danish judge Frederik Harhoff, saying that Meron was exerting undue influence on judges to pass rulings in favour of Genocide convicts.

Harhoff’s allegations were made in a five-page open letter that he authored and was published by Danish newspapers.

The Danish judge also served under Meron at the International Criminal Tribunal for the ex-Yugoslavia.

Speaking to The New Times, yesterday, genocide researcher Tom Ndahiro described Judge Meron’s order for the early release of Nahimana, as ‘disgusting’.

“Justice Meron has been a disgrace to the whole process of justice towards Genocide cases… this is not the first time he has made such a controversial order regarding Genocide convicts,” he said.

Ndahiro suggested that the UN Security Council, which oversees the functions of the tribunal, puts in place a mechanism that checks the excessive powers that Meron has, saying had this been in place, he wouldn’t have overseen the dozens of controversial decisions that have only served to benefit genocide perpetrators at the expense of the Genocide survivors.

Meanwhile, commenting on the way forward in a subsequent interview, Bizimana told The New Times that government will, through existing diplomatic channels, write to the UN Security council asking them to examine Meron’s decisions, with hope that these will be reversed.

‘We are putting together a file, that will be submitted by Rwandan Permanent Mission to the UN, to engage the UN Security council regarding this matter,” Bizimana said.



1) Ferdinand Nahimana: He was among the founders of RTLM. He was released on December 14, 2016, after having his life sentence by the Trial Chamber reduced on appeal to 30 years in prison.

2) Fr Emmanuel Rukundo: He was the military chaplain in the Rwandan army. He was released on December 14, 2016, after his sentence was reduced on appeal, from 25 years to 23 years.

3) Col Alphonse Nteziryayo: He was Prefet of Butare prefecture. He was released on March 23, 2016. He had his initial sentence handed by the trial chamber reduced from 30 years to 25 years, on appeal.

4) Dr Gerald Ntakirutimana: He was the Director of Mugonero hospital in Karongi District. He was released on April 29, 2014. He had been handed a 25 year sentence.

5) Capt Innocent Sagahutu: He was second-in-command of Reconnaissance Battalion. He was released on May 13, 2014. He also had his sentence reduced on appeal, from 20 years to 15.

6) Paul Bisengimana: He was Bourgmester of Gikoro Commune (former Kigali-rural prefecture). He was released on December 12/2012. He was sentenced to 15 years after pleading guilty to the crimes he was accused of.

7) Omar Serushago: He was the de facto leader of Interahamwe militia in former Gisenyi prefecture. He had been sentenced to 15 years in jail. He was freed on December 12, 2012 after pleading guilty for the crimes he was alleged.

8) Col Tharcise Muvunyi: He was Commander of the École des sous-officiers (ESO) in Butare. He was released on March 7, 2012. He had been handed a 25 year sentence by the trial chamber which was reduced on appeal to 12 years.

9) Juvenal Rugambarara: He was Bourgmester of Bicumbi Commune during the genocide. Rugambarara received a sentence of 11 years’ imprisonment on 16 November 2007 after pleading guilty. He was released on February 8, 2012.

10) Michel Bagaragaza: He was the managing director of OCIR-The, the controlling body for the tea industry in Rwanda.

On 5 November 2009, Bagaragaza was sentenced to eight years jail for complicity to commit genocide. On October 24, 2011, he was granted early release after he served “three-quarters” of his sentence. He was the first convict to be granted early release.

Source, CNLG

Geita Resident Escapes Death Penalty

PROCEDURAL irregularities have saved a resident of Geita Region, Sabasaba Enosi, from being hanged to death for allegedly killing two family members, Obedi Ntendele, alias Katole and Joseph Kubona, over an unknown motive.

This follows a decision of the Court of Appeal ordered to nullify the proceedings, conviction and the death sentence imposed on Enosi, the appellant, by the High Court on February 25, last year.

Justices Edward Rutakangwa, Salum Massati and Stella Mugasha ordered re-hearing of the murder trial instead.

They noted some irregularities in the proceedings of the trial court, including the trial being conducted by two judges at different stages without the successor judge assigning reasons why he had taken over the conduct of the matter and there were changes of set of court assessors.

The justices pointed out that section 299 (1) of the Criminal Procedure Act outlines the procedure to be followed where a judge who commenced the trial is unable to continue with the trial having recorded the whole or part of the evidence.

They said that the successor judge may proceed to pronounce judgment on evidence recorded by his predecessor, supplemented by evidence recorded by himself or he may in his discretion re-summon and rehear any of witnesses already heard by his predecessor if he deems necessary for interest of justice.


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Rebel Leader Ongwen Says ICC Trial ‘Taking Him Back to the Bush’

By Tabu Butagira

A former commander of the Ugandan rebel group Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA), Dominic Ongwen pleaded not guilty to war crimes and crimes against humanity as his trial opened Tuesday before the International Criminal Court at The Hague.

Mr Ongwen faces 70 counts related to atrocities committed by the LRA in a brutal 20-year war in northern and parts of eastern Uganda.

The charges include; murder, enslavement, inhuman acts of inflicting serious bodily injury and suffering, cruel treatment of civilians, intentionally directing an attack against a civilian population, rape, pillaging, torture and sexual slavery, among others.

Abducted as a child himself, Mr Ongwen was indicted alongside four other top commanders of the LRA in 2005 but he, so far, remains the only one to go to trial after he was captured by the Seleka rebel group that operated in rural eastern Central African Republic at the end of 2014.

He had reportedly escaped from detention by the leader of the LRA Joseph Kony, also indicted by the ICC.

Abducted at the age of 14 in the village of Coroom, Kilak County in present day Amuru district, he rose through the ranks to become one of the most feared commanders of the LRA.

Observers attribute his transition to the indoctrination that included gross rituals of witnessing killings the LRA subjected its child abductees to as part of training to become ruthless fighters.

At trial, Ongwen said he was himself a victim of the LRA atrocities while denying personal responsibility. He said the LRA should be blamed instead.

“I am one of the people against whom the LRA committed atrocities in northern Uganda,” he said, “It is not me who is the LRA.”

Ongwen told the court that being put on trial was like taking him to the bush for a second time.

Not fit to stand trial

Earlier, the ICC had ruled that Mr Ongwen understood the 70 counts against him and that he must stand trial after his defence team had raised protestations.

The ruling followed a last-minute objection his lawyers led by Krispus Ayena Odongo raised with the Trial Chamber IX that Mr Ongwen did not understand the trial and that he required psychological or psychiatric examination to determine whether he was fit to stand trial.

The defence told the court on the eve of the commencement of the trial that they had, from experts they engaged, learned that Mr Ongwen was neither of the proper mind to understand the charges nor their grave nature while in the bush and, therefore, “unfit” to stand trial.

After a court official read out the 70 charges, presiding judge Bertram Schmitt asked Mr Ongwen, dressed in grey suit provided by the ICC, whether he understood the charges.

“I did understand the document (of charges translated in Acholi), but not the charges because they are against the LRA and the LRA is Joseph Kony who is the leader… it’s the LRA that committed the crimes,” he responded.

Judge Schmitt ordered a 15-minute break after which he said it was the court’s concluded that Mr Ongwen understood the charges because he had said so during the pre-trial hearing in January this year.

A waste of time

Mr Ongwen at the time, according to the judge, said “Whether the charges are read or not is all going to be a waste of time. I have read (the translated document) and understand it”.

The charges that the suspect understood in January, the judge ruled, were not “materially different” from what was read to him in court Tuesday.

Judge Schmitt in his ruling on the preliminary objection, said: “The chamber is not persuaded that Mr Ongwen cannot understand something now which he understood in January 2016. Mr Ongwen’s remarks that LRA committed the offences means he understands the nature of the charges. The chamber is satisfied that Mr Ongwen understands the charges.”

Then he asked Mr Ongwen: “Do you make an admission of guilt?”

Instead of answering the question, Mr Ongwen said his trial was a “matter of life and death” which amounted to “going back to the bush” and asked the judge: “Do you agree that I am the leader of the LRA?”

Judge Schmitt guided him to respond to questions rather than ask questions of his own, assuring him that “you will receive a fair and an impartial hearing”.

Mr Ongwen then said: “In the name of God, I deny all these charges in regard to the war in northern Uganda.”

Africa: New Aids Vaccine – ‘Final Nail in Coffin’ for Disease?

Photo: Glenna Gordon/IRIN

(file photo).

South Africa has launched a major clinical trial of an experimental vaccine against the AIDS virus, which scientists hope could be the “final nail in the coffin” for the disease.

More than 30 years of efforts to develop an effective vaccine for HIV have not borne fruit, but for the first time since the virus was identified in 1983, scientists said on Wednesday they think they have found a promising candidate.

The new study, known as HVTN 702, will involve more than 5,400 sexually active men and women aged 18-35 in 15 areas around South Africa over four years.

Homeless HIV patient removed for Durban AIDS summit

It is one of the biggest clinical trials involving the disease ever undertaken and has revived hopes of a breakthrough in the battle against AIDS.

“If deployed alongside our current armoury of proven HIV prevention tools, a safe and effective vaccine could be the final nail in the coffin for HIV,” said Anthony Fauci, director of the US National institute for Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), which is taking part in the study.

“Even a moderately effective vaccine would significantly decrease the burden of HIV disease over time in countries and populations with high rates of HIV infection, such as South Africa.”

Condoms are at the frontline of efforts to prevent the spread of HIV, which is mainly transferred through the sexual fluids and blood of infected individuals.

A small number of people, mainly in developed countries, use virus-suppressing drugs as a preventive aid, although the exact level of protection this offers is not clear.

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But relying on existing prevention methods was not working, said Mmapule Raborife, one of HIV Vaccine Trials Network’s community advisors in the large township of Soshanguve, north of the administrative capital Pretoria.‘Condoms everywhere’“There are condoms everywhere in South Africa but people are just passing by as if there is nothing there,” she told AFP news agency.South Africa was not chosen by accident. The country has one of the highest rates of HIV infection in the world – 19.2 percent according to the UN AIDS agency – with more than seven million people living with the virus.”A vaccine is critical for South Africa,” said Glenda Gray, president of the country’s Medical Research Council.”Every day, 1,000 people are getting infected and most of them are young women and men so we need to find a solution.”The vaccine has been adapted for the HIV strain prevalent in southern Africa from one used in a trial of 16,000 people in Thailand in 2009, which reduced the risk of infection by more than 30 percent for three-and-a-half years after the first jab.The safety of the vaccine has already been tested successfully over 18 months on 252 volunteers. The new study aims to test its effectiveness as a virus-killer.Vaccines work by priming the body to respond with germ-fighting antibodies whenever a virus or bacteria invades. But the AIDS-causing virus is stealthy and quick to mutate to avoid being targeted.”If we have a 50 percent efficacy rate, we would consider this an effective vaccine,” said Gray.From there, it could take five to 10 years to scale up production, “and we need money to take [it] to a world level”, she added.Even if the new vaccine proves effective, experts warn it is vital to remain vigilant in the fight against HIV.”A highly efficient vaccine would be a game-changer but the results of these trials will take years,” Lynn Morris, head of the HIV virology section at South Africa’s National Institute for Communicable Diseases (NICD), told AFP.”We must continue to use other HIV prevention tools to reduce the number of new HIV infections, particularly in vulnerable populations such as young women.”How Malawi reduced its HIV/Aids infection rateAccording to UNAIDS, half of the 36 million or so people with HIV around the world have access to anti-retroviral drugs (ARVs), a figure that has doubled in five years.Thanks to these treatments, which keep the virus in check and increase the lifespan of HIV-positive people without curing them, average life expectancy in South Africa has risen from 57.1 years to 62.9 since 2009.”I know people who are HIV positive and I know people who died because of HIV – some of them are in my family,” one trial participant who declined to give her name.”I want to make a difference in my community and in my country… There’s no cure yet, so we have to keep fighting.”

South Africa: HIV Vaccine Trial to Begin

Photo: Glenna Gordon/IRIN

(file photo).

By Aline Barros

A new clinical trial is underway in South Africa on an experimental vaccine that could safely prevent HIV, the virus that causes AIDS.

According to a statement from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the HVTN 702 is the largest and most advanced HIV vaccine clinical trial to be undertaken in South Africa, where some seven million people are living with the virus.

The director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), which is part of the NIH, Anthony S. Fauci said the new study is based on the one conducted in Thailand led by the U.S. Military HIV Research Program and the Thai Ministry of Health.

“The HVTN 702 vaccine regimen has been adapted to the HIV subtype that predominates in southern Africa, where the pandemic is most pervasive,” Fauci said in a statement.

Hopes for ‘final nail in the coffin for HIV’

The study is expected to enroll 5,400 sexually active men and women between 18 and 35 at 15 sites across South Africa where more than 1,000 people a day are infected with HIV.

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“If deployed alongside our current armory of proven HIV prevention tools, a safe and effective vaccine could be the final nail in the coffin for HIV. … Even a moderately effective vaccine would significantly decrease the burden of HIV disease over time in countries and populations with high rates of HIV infection, such as South Africa,” Fauci said.The 2009 Thailand study proved for the first time that an AIDS vaccine was possible. It looked at a vaccine candidate called RV144. Since the results were announced, researchers have been combing through the data. The vaccine, however, only offered a protection rate of 31 percent—not high enough to go to market, but high enough to cause a lot of excitement for vaccine researchers.‘Great promise’The new trial hopes to provide a higher and sustainable protection rate.“HIV has taken a devastating toll in South Africa, but now we begin a scientific exploration that could hold great promise for our country. If an HIV vaccine were found to work in South Africa, it could dramatically alter the course of the pandemic,” Glenda Gray, president and chief executive officer of the South African Medical Research Council, said.Volunteers are being randomly assigned and will receive the “investigational HIV vaccine regimen” or a placebo. The first participant was enrolled on October 26.Results of the clinical trial are expected in 2020.More on ThisNew HIV Vaccine Trial to Commence in S/Africa

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