Posts tagged as: march

Seychelles: British Airways to Resume Flights to Seychelles in Major Boost for Tourism

British Airways will resume direct flights to Seychelles in March after a decade-long absence, giving the island nation a major new boost to its tourism market, officials said on Tuesday.

The airline will start operating two non-stop flights per week from London Heathrow airport to Seychelles from March 24 next year using its newest fleet of aircraft, the Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner.

The departure flights from Heathrow’s Terminal 5 will be on Wednesdays and Saturdays and the return flights on Thursdays and Sundays.

British Airways, the flag carrier of the United Kingdom, stopped direct flights to Seychelles, an archipelago in the western Indian Ocean, more than a decade ago.

The new twice-weekly flights will operate from March to October, offering more choice to sun-seeking holidaymakers.

The chief executive of the Seychelles Tourism Board, Sherin Francis, said, “Seychelles has in the past years at every given opportunity expressed its interest to see British Airways serving the destination again and the invitations were even extended from the highest office in Seychelles. We are happy that this long-awaited day has arrived.”

Francis added that “the UK is a very important market for Seychelles and the team at British Airways can count on our support for this route.”

The British carrier says the route timetable is perfectly positioned for honeymooners and holidaymakers keen on extending their break in the Seychelles.

The Seychelles’ Minister of Tourism, Maurice Loustau-Lalanne in welcoming the announcement, said this is the best news for the Seychelles’ tourism industry, for both its short term and long term viability.

“We were all devastated when British Airways pulled out in 2004. The return of British Airways to the Seychelles with two non-stop flights from London Heathrow in 2018 will provide a boost, especially to our 5 Star establishments,” said Loustau-Lalanne.

The minister added that the direct flights will also help to further develop the United States market and elsewhere.

On the side of the British Airways, the Director of Network and Alliances, Sean Doyle said, “The Seychelles is one of the most beautiful places on earth, and we’re delighted to be adding this collection of islands to our extensive route network.”

Once it starts operation in March next year, British Airways will become the only airline offering direct service between Seychelles and the U.K.

Visitor arrivals from the U.K and Northern Ireland to date is around 15,400, making it the Seychelles’ fifth leading market and representing a 22 percent increase over last year.

British Airways has launched over 30 new routes across the globe this year and flights to its new Indian Ocean route, Seychelles, as of March 2018 are already available for booking.

Zimbabwe: Zvinavashe Estate, Mavhaire in Bikita Minerals Battle

By Cyril Zenda

The High Court has ordered an investigation into the shareholding of Bikita Minerals (Pvt) Limited to determine the veracity of claims that former army commander,the late Retired General Vitalis Zvinavashe, held a 15 percent stake in the firm.

Bikita Minerals is believed to hold the world’s largest known lithium deposits, estimated at 11 million tonnes. Justice Davison Foroma ordered the Minister of Justice, Legal and Parliamentary Affairs, Emmerson Mnangagwa, also the country’s Vice President, to appoint an inspector to probe claims by the executor of Zvinavashe’s estate, of the late general’s shareholding in the lithium producer.

The late army commander’s son, Richard Zvinavashe, who is the executor of the national hero’s estate, says he has failed to trace the shares.

Richard sought the appointment of an investigator on the basis of his understanding that his father owned 15 percent of the company which he said “may have fraudulently and or oppressively conducted its affairs to the prejudice of the deceased estate”.

According to courts documents, while admitting that Zvinavashe was its director, Bikita Minerals insisted the war veteran was never a shareholder.

A search at the Registrar of Companies by Richard had produced a CR14 that showed that Zvinavashe had ceased to be a director on March 7, 2009, with the reason curiously stated “as a result of death.” Zvinavashe only succumbed to cancer three days after that, on March 10, 2009.

Former energy and power development minister, Dzikamai Mavhaire and businesswoman, Janet Mutasa, were chairman and company secretary of Bikita Minerals respectively, at the time of Zvinavashe’s death. In his founding affidavit, Richard averred that he believed the CR 14 was fraudulently created.

“It is clear, therefore, that three days before his death the board of directors chaired by honourable Mavhaire had already written to the Registrar of Companies through its consultants to have my father removed from the office of director on false claims that he had died,” he said.

The judge said it was highly unlikely that Zvinavashe was just a director with no shareholding in the company. Mavhaire, with whom Zvinavashe joined the company’s board on November 13, 2004, was a 21 percent shareholder.

“That may well be so and such attitude is understandable, especially given that applicant has come to know that D C Mavhaire with whom the deceased joined the board of first respondent on the same day is the holder of 21 percent shareholding in first respondent,” said Justice Foroma.

“The attitude of the applicant has been prompted by first respondent’s negative attitude to his legitimate search for information.

“The applicant’s concerns are understandable.

He requires to bring to account all assets of the deceased estate for the benefit of the beneficiaries

of the estate, including the fiscus. The last thing he as executor would expect is any reason to suspect collusion on the part of the deceased’s lifetime colleagues.

In this regard, first respondent (Bikita Minerals) has not allayed such fears,” Foroma added. The court noted that the executor should be given equal access to make informed decisions. Bikita Minerals had failed to

demonstrate what prejudice, if any, it stood to suffer on account of the investigation, hence the court’s decision to order the probe.

“The court finds that it is desirable that the affairs of the first respondent be investigated for purposes of establishing the shareholding structure of the company and any consequential matters resulting from the said investigation

in so far as the same may affect the winding up of the estate of the late Vitalis Musungwa Gava Zvinavashe,” Foroma said.

Army Worm Invasion Wipes Off 12% Yield

By Halima Abdallah

The fall armyworm infestation has dealt a blow to Uganda’s food security by wiping out 12 per cent of the produce in the last crop season.

The worm is known to feed on more than 80 plant species including maize, millet, sorghum, rice and wheat, as well as legumes, cotton and pasture grass varieties like rhodes grass, Kikuyu grass, lucerne and others that are used as cattle feed in the country.

While Uganda produces close to four million tonnes of maize annually, Agriculture Minister Vincent Sempijja said that the impact of the armyworm infestation could be responsible for the loss of at least 450,000 tonnes of maize or $192.8 million worth of maize exports.

“The figures that we have are only reflective of maize. However the pest affects more crops thereby heightening the potential loss to the economy,” said Mr Sempijja.

Uganda Bureau of Statistics data shows that maize contributes to the livelihoods of over 3.6 million households in the country, and is a staple for over 300 million people on the continent.

First reported in Nigeria in January 2016, the fall armyworm has since spread to Kenya, Zambia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Togo, and Ghana.

The worm infestation could not have come at a worst time. Most of the affected countries were still grappling with the effects of the 2016 drought which led to widespread food shortages and starvation.

According to Food and Agriculture Organisation, close to 18 million people in Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Somalia, Djibouti and South Sudan are severely food insecure following consecutive depressed rainfall leading to crop failure, widespread pasture and water shortages, reduced opportunities for rural employment, increasing livestock deaths and rising food prices.

In Kenya, the government set aside $1 million to control and eradicate the pest.

Uganda, which recorded a worm invasion in half of the country, will spend Ush4.5 billion ($1.2 million) to control the pest.

The money was released through a supplementary request by the ministry of agriculture in July and is being spent to procure pesticides and for mass sensitisation programme for farmers.

“We have already procured pesticides to manage the pests. We shall involve massive spraying and all district agriculture officers have been involved,” said the director of crop resources at the ministry of agriculture, Opolot Okasaai.

Mr Okasaai said that the country lost between 10-12 per cent of its produce in the March-July crop season.

“We hope not to lose as much in this crop season because we have been sensitising farmers and the districts agriculture officers have been trained on how to manage the worms,” he said.

Is Kenya Losing Its Air Freight Edge to Ethiopia?

analysisBy Njiraini Muchira

High costs and long cargo dwell times are hampering Kenya’s competitiveness in the air cargo business in the region.

Transporters say that while the Kenya government has invested heavily in upgrading its airports, particularly Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA), rising fuel prices, security threats and changing inventory policies are making the country lose its competitive edge to Ethiopia.

Ethiopian Airlines operates eight freighters on 39 global routes with an average daily uplift of 650 tonnes to 95 destinations globally.

Although Kenya is strategically placed to serve as the hub of air traffic for East and Central Africa, challenges like cargo long dwell time, which ranges between three to five days; lack of free storage facilities that cause demurrage charges; lengthy Customs documentation that delay cargo clearance; and numerous regulatory agencies with overlapping mandates are driving away traffic.

“These have negatively impacted shippers’ competitiveness on the global market and the growth of the sector,” says a report by the Shippers Council of Eastern Africa, which is studying Kenya’s air freight sub-sector.

About 18 per cent of Kenya’s total value of exports destined for international markets is transported by air. These are mainly high-value fresh vegetables, cut flowers and fish.

Globally, more than one-third of the value of goods traded is transported by air.


Fresh produce exporters, who are the main users of air transport at JKIA cargo centre, say the cost of doing business accounts for close to 55 per cent of the total export value.

“Agricultural producers have goods to export, but are simply unable to economically do so due to the cost and or lack of air cargo options,” says another report on costs and benefit of open skies in East Africa Community done by consulting firm InterVISTAS.

InterVISTAS says that addressing the challenges facing transporters, including liberalising the region’s airspace, would result in new markets for regional air cargo transport, thus allowing perishable goods to flow to key markets in the European Union, Asia and the US.

Despite the government investing about $150 million in upgrading JKIA over the past decade, these challenges continue to impact cargo volumes at the airport.

Airport underutilisation

Data from the Kenya Airports Authority shows that the volume of cargo handled at JKIA between March 2016 and March 2017 declined by two per cent, from 20.7 million tonnes to 20.3 million tonnes.

The authority, however, blamed underutilisation of the airport’s capacity for the dwindling cargo volumes. JKIA has a capacity of 5,000 tonnes a week but only 3,000 goes through every week.

At least 25 airlines operate cargo services out of JKIA, with Kenya Airways handling a paltry 65,000 tonnes annually.

In April, the airline opened a new cargo centre projecting to increase its annual revenue by $2 million.

Kenya’s two other international airports, Eldoret and Moi International Airport, recorded growth in cargo volumes at 21 per cent and 103 per cent respectively.

During the period, Eldoret handled one million tonnes, up from 845,985, while Mombasa handled 311,000 tonnes up from 153,000.

According to a report by the World Bank, the demand for air freight is limited by cost, typically priced about five times that of road transport and 15 times that of sea transport.

Air freight rates range from $1.50 to $4.50 per kilogramme, while the value of air cargo typically exceeds $4 per kilogramme.

The Army’s Dangerous Over-Reliance On Peacekeeping

Originally published in African Arguments

Burundi needs international peacekeeping missions to keep its troops paid and happy. Peacekeeping missions need Burundian troops. But for how long?

The crisis that has engulfed Burundi since April 2015 is the result of infighting among a small number of insiders belonging to the ruling party, the CNDD-FDD. Having all fought in the bush together, some of them felt that the president, Pierre Nkurunziza, should make way for others to have a turn at the top job, and refused to accept his plan to rule for life.

Most senior members of the regime were and remain officers, having joined the new army at senior ranks after the civil war. The government presents a civilian veneer to the outside world, but it has always been military at heart. Although its rank and file were not involved in these internecine struggles, it was inevitable that the military would be drawn into the crisis, most dramatically in the failed coup attempt of May 2015.

Since then, tit-for-tat assassinations have pitted regime loyalists against real or supposed opponents, and a climate of fear has enveloped the army.

A post-war success?

The history of the Burundian army sheds light on recent developments. It was created in its current form in 2004 as a merger of Hutu rebel groups and the old Tutsi-dominated army, who had fought each other to a standstill in the ten-year long civil war (1993-2003).

Benefiting from heavy international support, Burundi’s military was presented as a big success of the country’s post-war reconstruction. This had some foundation. Training and fighting abroad together did improve the army’s esprit de corps. This helps explain why, despite ongoing violence, the army is not in open factional warfare.

However, gains made by training and deployment had their limits. The senior ranks are still part of a violent and corrupt regime operating with zero-sum political mentality. Parallel chains of command reach up to the presidency, wielding great power, undermining formal structures and sowing distrust.

The main factor that has kept the new army together is, unsurprisingly in such a poor country, money. And the source of the money has been international peacekeeping operations. Participation in UN and AU operations is one of the five missions of the new army, according to its own founding texts.

Deploying to Somalia

From December 2007, the Burundian army has been deployed in the largest military operation in Africa: the African mission in Somalia, AMISOM. The size of the Burundian contingent (around 5,000) and the length of time deployed means that nearly all Burundian soldiers and officers have done at least one tour. Participation in AMISOM has brought international training opportunities and the chance to deploy elsewhere, notably in the UN operation in the Central African Republic.

Salaries in Burundi range from $80 per month for troops to $250-300 per month for senior officers. But AMISOM soldiers got, up to the end of 2015, $1,032 a month. Combined with some other perks such as preferential loan rates, this was enough for many soldiers to buy land or property, start a family, or help their community. Meanwhile, death in duty benefits, at $50,000, are a fortune by Burundian standards. Interestingly these are a flat rate for all. Despite the considerable risks, there is certainly no shortage of volunteers for posts in AMISOM.

Up to 2016, the Burundian government took $200 from each monthly pay package for running costs. This is not an unimportant sum, especially since donors started pulling out of the country in 2015. But the main benefit for the government lies in the money the soldiers receive, which allows them to keep 25,000 former rebels and troops happy regardless of how the country is run or how well the government’s own budget is spent.

Calling the EU’s bluff

Following instability of the 1990s, Burundi is one of several African countries (along with Chad, Uganda, Rwanda) using or have used deployment in international operations to improve a country’s international image; gain leverage over donors who see international operations as a priority; and buy off potential internal dissent.

So far so simple. But what happens if the political strains of authoritarian rule threaten the democratic image of the country? This question, almost existential for the regime in Bujumbura, was raised by the EU’s decision, in March 2016, to withhold its payments to Burundian troops in AMISOM. The EU has long paid all troop salaries for AMISOM, although had reduced the amount paid from $1,032 to $800 in late-2015 (for reasons not connected to Burundi).

The March 2016 decision was motivated by the EU’s decision that Burundi was failing to meet its obligations concerning democracy and respect for human rights. Burundi reacted, predictably enough, by threatening to pull its troops out of AMISOM. The EU, its bluff called, came to an arrangement, through the AU, to continue to pay Burundian troops, with the appearance of bypassing the government and preventing it from taking its cut for running costs.

A risky strategy

This episode tells us that the leverage that troop-contributing countries have over donors is very real. The Burundian contingent, considered effective, was seen, at least in the short term, as irreplaceable. And international interests in the mission in Somalia far outweigh any desire to exercise leverage over Burundian authorities. At the back of the mind of many European officials was also the question: if we stop payments to Burundian troops and they go home, could it have a de-stabilising effect on the country?

But the longer term is less certain. The level of EU support to AMISOM is controversial in Brussels where British officials have fought long and hard against a French desire to redirect European spending towards the West African Sahel. Even without the UK leaving the Union, support for AMISOM would have been under great pressure. And meanwhile, the AU is locked in lengthy negotiations concerning how to finance itself from member state contributions.

The international partners who supported the Burundian army between 2004 and 2015 are the same as those who have supported AMISOM – namely, the EU, its member states, and the US. Motivated in large part by a desire to generate troops for AMISOM and other missions, they presumably accepted that calculations of how large an army Burundi could sustain would be based in part on participation in missions abroad.

But this left little room for consideration of the merits of heavily funding an army in a country run by an increasingly authoritarian regime. And now, the new international environment, with a financial squeeze in Europe, a more restrictive US position concerning UN peacekeeping, and ongoing concerns over Burundi’s human rights record makes relying on peacekeeping to fund the Burundian army a risky strategy.


Richard Moncrieff

Project Director, Central Africa


Thierry Vircoulon

Senior Consultant, Central Africa

Kenya: Only 4 Banks Increased Credit to Businesses in the Last Three Months – CBK Study

By Kennedy Kangethe

Nairobi — Only 10 percent of Kenya’s 42 financial institutions posted an increase in credit issuance as a result of capping of interest rates in the second quarter of 2017.

This is according to a new Survey by the Central Bank of Kenya has seen banks register mixed reactions on the impact of interest rates on demand and actual credit granted.

CBK’s Commercial Bank Credit Survey, which was undertaken between April and June 2017, shows that 45 percent of the commercial banks said interest rate capping had little effect on the actual loans issued, while the other 45 percent said actual credit granted decreased.

“Commercial Banks have taken a wait and see approach on how the market will react to the capping of interest rates. This trend was the same in the previous quarter,” the report states.

On demand for Credit, Interest rate capping led to increased demand for credit for 35 percent of banks who attributed this to cheaper credit.

The survey has not named the particular banks.

But half of the banks (50 percent) indicated that the demand for credit remained unchanged while 15 percent noted that demand for credit decreased.

Gross loans decreased by 0.84 percent from Sh2.38 trillion in March 2017 to Sh2.36 trillion in June 2017.

This decrease in gross loans was mainly attributable to a reduction in loans granted to support the Transport and Communication, Trade, Agricultural, Real Estate and Mining and Quarrying sectors.

The ratio of gross non-performing loans to gross loans increased from 9.5 percent in March 2017 to 9.91 percent in June 2017.


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M23 Rebels Still a Big Problem for Uganda, Says Kuteesa

By Agencies

M23 rebels who once waged an armed struggle against the government of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) before signing a peace agreement, still pose a big challenge to Uganda, Foreign Affairs Minister, Mr Sam Kuteesa has said.

Mr Kutesa says the M23 rebels have become a problem to Uganda since they are neither refugees nor prisoners in the country.

In January, Kinshasa protested after learning that hundreds of M23 rebels led by Gen Sultan Makenga had escaped from Uganda and returned to their bases in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).

Kampala later reported that it had arrested and imprisoned 101 M23 rebels who were trying to enter DRC.

Mr Kutesa says DRC hasn’t implemented the terms of the 2013 Nairobi peace Accord nearly four years after its signing, adding that there is still time for them to honour their obligations and end the M23 question.

Mr Kutesa was responding to questions on Tuesday during a lecture on Uganda’s foreign landscape at Hotel Africana.

In 2013, M23 rebels signed a ceasefire agreement with the DRC government that facilitated by Uganda in Nairobi.

According to the accord, the rebels were supposed to transform their group into a legitimate political party.

The DRC government was supposed to integrate some fighters into the national army and help others return to civilian life.

However, some of the fighters were pushed into Uganda and are currently residing in Bihanga Military Training School.

The lecture was attended by a number of diplomats who included among others; the US Ambassador, Ms Deborah Melac, the French ambassador, Ms Stephanie Rivoal, and British High Commissioner to Uganda, Mr Peter West among others.

The March 23 Movement often abbreviated as M23 and also known as the Congolese Revolutionary was started in March 2012 and waged an armed struggled against Kinshasa for nearly 20 months until it signed a peace agreement in December 2013 in Nairobi.

The rebel group was based in the east of the country mainly in North Kivu Province.


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Nigeria: Nigeria Airports Fail United States FAA Audit

By Chinedu Eze

It has been confirmed that Nigeria’s major airports which operate international services were unable to meet security and safety standards during the recent audit carried out by the US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) for the renewal of Nigeria’s Category 1 safety status.

THISDAY reliably gathered that the FAA team gave Nigeria 65 days to close the gaps at the airports’ infrastructural deficiencies, especially in the area of safety and security.

Without the renewal of the Category 1 rating, Nigerian registered aircraft cannot fly to the US and this would also downgrade the rating of Nigeria in the world air transport industry.

Informed source disclosed that the FAA team was dissatisfied with the dismal record of stowaways from Nigeria, which depict the security apparatus of the airports as porous, which explains why there are so many security breaches.

There have been scores of stowaway attempts incidents at the nation’s airports.

In March 2010, a Nigerian, Okechukwu Okeke was found dead in the nose wheel compartment of the United States carrier, Delta Air Lines, Boeing B777 aircraft parked on the tarmac of the Lagos airport.

Also, on September 19, 2010 another Nigerian man was discovered crushed to death in the wheel well of Arik Air flight, which arrived from Johannesburg, South Africa. Prior to Daniel’s incident, another Nigerian was discovered in the undercarriage compartment of Arik Air aircraft, after it returned from a flight to New York.

Ground workers at the international terminal of the Murtala Muhammed Airport, Lagos, were shocked one Saturday morning in March 14, 2015 when the dead body of a man in his mid-40s dropped from the wheel-well of Arik Air aircraft being prepared for another flight to New York.

According to security officials, the body, which had started decomposing, might have been in the wheel-well since the aircraft had its last flight from New York.

There was another stowaway, who sneaked into the wheel-well of the massive Airbus A340-500 aircraft, hoping to hide there and get to New York; but instead of arriving at the JFK Airport, New York alive, it was his dead body that came back and fell at the tarmac.

These documented incidents showed that the nation’s major airports are permeable and therefore not secure enough to meet international security standards.

THISDAY also learnt that Nigeria, through the Nigerian Civil Aviation Authority (NCAA) has met all other assessments during the FAA audit and it was also confirmed that the gaps observed during the audit would be closed by the Federal Airports Authority of Nigeria (FAAN)

But industry consultant and the CEO of Belujane Konsult, Chris Aligbe said that the only solution to airport infrastructural deficiencies is concession, insisting that transparent concession of these airports would permanently solve the problem of obsolete and porous airports.

“The solution of poor airport facilities is concession, but there should be efforts to ensure that every staff of FAAN is carried along. The unions are major stakeholders. The concession programme should be put in the open so that the country will get the best of it. It is the responsibility of government in the concession that every staff gets all his full entitlements just at the point of concession and those that will be retained will be retained on different service conditions,” Aligbe said.

He noted that concession will create opportunity for employment to be given to more people. So, the Nigerian government would create opportunity for many currently unemployed to get employment, which he said would make the country move forward.

On the deficiencies at the airport, Aligbe said: “Anyway, they gave us room to close gaps and maybe towards the end of their report they will come and check before the will issue the report.

“The thing FAA is interested in at the airports is the safety system; not just individual things. What happened over a period of time is the high record of stowaways. The entire safety system of the airport is porous. In terms of security, safety and standards, the major airports are not modern. And you cannot bring a new wine and put in old wine skin. You cannot, even if you go and create new security system, if the airport does not adjust to it because of its old design, it will not take cognisance of the equipment you are trying to put in.”

Uganda: HIV Now On Decline in Uganda

By Everlyn Lirri

Uganda’s HIV prevalence has declined to six per cent from 7.3 per cent in 2011, preliminary results of a nationwide survey released by the Ministry of Health show.

The 2016 Uganda Population HIV Impact Assessment survey was conducted between August 2016 and March 2017. The results show HIV prevalence among those in the 15 to 49 age bracket stands at six per cent while among children under five it stands at 0.5 per cent.

“Based on the survey results, the total number of adults and children of all ages living with HIV in Uganda is estimated at about 1.3 million,” said the Minister of Health Dr Ruth Jane.


The figures show HIV prevalence was higher among women at 7.5 per cent compared with 4.3 per cent among men. This is a drop from 8.3 per cent and 6.1 per cent respectively, from the 2011 Aids Indicator Survey estimates.

Among men, HIV rates are highest in the 45 to 49 age group at 14 per cent. Among women the highest rates have been registered in the 35 to 39 age group, and 45 to 49 at 12.9 and 12.8 per cent respectively.

Among young people, prevalence among those aged 15 to 24, stands at 2.1 per cent. In the 25 to 29 age group, HIV prevalence stands at 8.5 per cent among women and 3.5 per cent among men.

“This suggests new infections remain an issue in these age groups and we need to come up with innovative interventions to help them,” said Dr Aceng.


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Zimbabwe: U.S.$50 Million Women Fund Disbursement Begins

By Jeoffrey Ncube

The Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe has begun disbursement of the $50 million women empowerment fund targeted at supporting women owned business initiatives in the country, Norah Mukura, the central bank’s deputy director in the Bank supervision division has said.

In an interview with 263Chat, Mukura said disbursement of the fund is being done through banks.

“The fund is specifically targeted for women owned businesses and we recently started to disburse the funds through the banks, so women will simply go to their banks and micro finance institutions were they can access these funds,” said Mukura.

She added that they have a working group under their financial inclusion implementation that is focusing on financial literacy, education and consumer protection.

“For women to know where and how to get the money, we have a working group under our financial inclusion implementation that is focusing on financial literacy, education and consumer protection issues.

“So through that we will be addressing some of those challenges so that women will take up these facilities that we are offering and improve their lives.

Mukura further emphasized that the fund will benefit every woman in Zimbabwe including students in Higher and Tertiary institutions.

“There is a fund for business linkage facility that is focusing on agriculture activities for small holders and women in rural areas can also benefit from that.


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