Posts tagged as: eldoret

Kenya: Mental Health Services Hard Hit By Nurses’ Strike

By Barnabas Bii and Winnie Atieno

Mental health units in Kenya have been among the hardest hit by the ongoing nurses’ strike.

As the country marked World Mental Health Day on Tuesday, families of mentally-ill people pleaded with care-givers to resume duty.

The worst-hit hospitals include Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret and Port Reitz District Hospital Mental Health and Substance Abuse Department in Mombasa.

The facility in Eldoret, which serves about 80 patients — double the capacity — is overwhelmed.


Not much is going on at the department due to the nurses’ strike.

This is after nurses who are expected to offer medical care to mentally-ill patients joined the general strike, leaving patients with minimal care and treatment.

The hospital has two psychiatrists and four more from Moi University, three clinical officers and five nurses in the mental health unit.

“We get 60-70 outpatients in a week who need mental care, which is higher than the normal 30 to 40 patients. Some patients relapse on failing to get medication and treatment at county hospitals,” said Dr Asha Mwangi, who is in charge of the unit.


Since the launch of the mental health policy last year, the unit has been training more professionals in psychiatry to enhance services.

But implementation of the policy is being slowed down by the nurses’ strike. The same scenario is replicated across different counties.

Patients in Mombasa County have resorted to private clinics some of which are owned by the striking nurses.

This is after services at Port Reitz – the second largest mental health institution in Kenya after Mathari Mental Hospital in Nairobi – ground to a halt.


The hospital has only one psychiatrist, who also attends to patients battling drug abuse at Coast Provincial General Hospital.

It also has less than 20 health personnel (nurses and clinical officers) against a maximum 40 in-patients and about 60 out-patients.

The hospital serves Kilifi, Lamu, Kwale, Tana River, Taita-Taveta, Mombasa and other neighbouring counties.

Relatives of mentally-ill patients said they were seeking treatment at private health facilities.


“It is very expensive but it is better than allowing their conditions to deteriorate due to lack of treatment. The only service my brother is missing is counselling,” said one relative.

The source, who sought anonymity, added: “My brother suffers from depression and has battled drug addiction. A nurse normally gives him antipsychotic medication when he becomes aggressive.”

In June, more than 30 patients admitted at the Port Reitz facility were forcibly discharged when nurses withdrew their services.

A month after that, a mentally-ill patient from Kilifi committed suicide at the hospital using his belt.

Safaricom Now Evolves M-Pesa to the Next Level

By Muthoki Mumo

Safaricom #ticker:SCOM has launched its M-Pesa 1Tap payment card, wristband and stickers in five more towns, stepping up competition with banks for plastic card users.

The launch in Nairobi, Mombasa, Kisumu, Eldoret and Nyeri comes after a pilot test in Nakuru unveiled in May this year.

Under M-Pesa 1Tap, customers have the option of using a card, a wristband or a sticker affixed to their phones to make payments. The three tags will be integrated to the customers’ M-Pesa accounts.

Users will make payments by tapping any of the tags to a retail point-of-sale and in-putting their M-Pesa PIN numbers on their phones following a real-time pop-up prompt.

Safaricom says M-Pesa 1Tap is ultimately intended to increase the efficiency of cashless transactions at retail outlets.

“This cuts down the steps involved from more than eight steps using the M-Pesa tool on SIM cards to just one step for the customer,” said the company in a statement.

Safaricom says 2,000 merchants have taken up the M-Pesa 1Tap service in Nakuru and more than 90,000 customers have used it.

Among those who have taken up the service include Shell, Naivas, Choppies, KenolKobil, Oilibya, Total and QuickMart. The service is, however, not yet available at all outlets run by these retailers.


Duale to Seek MPs Approval of Sh11.5 Billion for Poll

Majority Leader in the National Assembly Aden Duale says he will be requesting MPs to approve the release of Sh11.5… Read more »

Whatever CAF Decides, CHAN Circus Must End

opinionBy Moses Ojuang’

The Confederation of African Football (Caf) officials were in the country on a tight schedule to inspect Kenya’s facilities for the 2018 Africa Nations Championships (Chan).

They were taken to all the stadiums expected to host the January matches — MISC Kasarani, Nyayo National Stadium, Moi Kinoru Stadium in Meru and Eldoret’s Kipchoge Keino Stadium.

Somehow, the Machakos stadium was not inspected for reasons known best to the inspectors and perhaps Football Kenya Federation too.

We watched with a somewhat sinking feeling as the inspectors took their notes while politely asking some questions that were being answered inaudibly and at length by Kenyan officials.

One wishes we could peek into their notes and get a glimpse of what they really were thinking about us.

To say the truth, of the stadiums mentioned, only MISC Kasarani, which hosted the IAAF World Under-18 Championships in July meets the hosting requirements!

The rest are a shame even to the adults walking around the Caf officials with wide smiles that betrayed their restlessness. This time round, it was a whirlwind tour of the venues and there was no time to take them to the Nairobi National Park to adopt some cheetah chimpanzee or godknowswhatelse!

We had to show them the real things on the ground and that to us was gehannum! At the dug-up pitch at the never-ending, ever-being-refurbished Kipchoge Keino Stadium in Eldoret, people are working with the most rudimentary tools like jembes, et al.

Trenches are filled with foul water at Nyayo National Stadium and the horror that is Kinoru… it was indeed an interesting tour.

All the time, our visitors were taking notes — some even doing it in Arabic — and asking those simple embarrassing questions. Our officials were looking important and took the opportunity to assure us that all was well.

The verdict is not yet out but we must be ready for anything now. Steel our nerves and hope for the best while expecting the worst. That way, when the cudgel falls ,we shall not feel much bitterness, rave and rant against our big men. We shall have cushioned all those feelings.

The final decision will now be taken at the next Caf’s executive committee meeting in Accra this Saturday.

We wish we could sleep sans fear but that is not the case. We wait with crossed fingers and hope that we shall keep the hosting rights. We have talked about this small thing for such a long time till boredom creeps in whenever we revisit the matter.

We shall not give up until it is over and we shall chide the authorities as much as we can. This should be the last thing we ever bid for if it fails to take place here! We shall ask that whoever tries to bid for hosting rights for our country be jailed for shaming us!


Duale to Seek MPs Approval of Sh11.5 Billion for Poll

Majority Leader in the National Assembly Aden Duale says he will be requesting MPs to approve the release of Sh11.5… Read more »

Governors’ Headache Over County Appointments

The battle for the county executive positions has intensified as newly-elected governors in the North Rift struggle to distribute the posts amid lobbying from various interested groups.

The focus has shifted to the 10 positions after the county assembly Speaker posts were filled last week.

Most governors are under pressure following intense lobbying by various players, who want to be considered for the positions.

In Uasin Gishu, the Eldoret Residents Association (ERA) want Governor Jackson Mandago to make his cabinet an all-inclusive one.


Addressing journalists in Eldoret town, the association chairman Richard Kemboi asked the county boss to ensure the CECs represent the diversity of the county.

The governor was accused in 2013 of filling the positions with the members from the dominant Kalenjin community.

“We hope that the governor will not renege on his pre-election promise by making all key appointments a preserve of only communities that voted for him in the concluded August polls,” said Mr Kemboi.

He said it would be wise for Mr Mandago to ensure the face of Kenya is reflected in his government so as not embarrass Deputy President William Ruto, who hails from the region.

“There is a lot of anxiety and fear among some county staff over the fate of their jobs for taking political stand during the concluded August election. We hope the governor will not fire them as they were exercising their democratic right,” added Kemboi


In Baringo, the lobbying for the positions has gone a notch higher with minority communities demanding that Governor Stanley Kiptis considers them when he constitutes his new cabinet and other key positions in the county.

“God knows why he put all of us in this county. We fear our issues will not be adequately addressed because we are few,” said Mr Amos Olempaka from Ilchamus community.

Mr Olempaka who is also a human rights activist told the Nation that one said the community should be given more slots in the county executive for regional balance.

In Elgeyo-Marakwet, the governor has contracted services of a state firm in the hiring of chief executives even as lobbying for the plum jobs intensified.

Governor Alex Tolgos is expected to name and present his nominees for the key positions to the County Assembly for approval this week.


The governor’s principal advisor Kipkoech Karamai told Nation on Wednesday that Kenya School of Government has been contracted to do the interviews for county executives and chief officers.

The governor has indicated that he is re-organising his government and would be looking for the best individuals, who can help him deliver his development agenda.

Those who are likely to make to the governor’s list could include those who were promised job rewards for their significant contributions during the campaigns, notably those who shelved their ambitions to support him.

In Trans Nzoia, Governor Patrick Khaemba of Ford-Kenya promised to form an all-inclusive government that will include those supporting Jubilee Party and other parties.

Reporting by Dennis Lubanga, Flora Koech, Philemon Suter and Gerald Bwisa.

Is Kenya Losing Its Air Freight Edge to Ethiopia?

analysisBy Njiraini Muchira

High costs and long cargo dwell times are hampering Kenya’s competitiveness in the air cargo business in the region.

Transporters say that while the Kenya government has invested heavily in upgrading its airports, particularly Jomo Kenyatta International Airport (JKIA), rising fuel prices, security threats and changing inventory policies are making the country lose its competitive edge to Ethiopia.

Ethiopian Airlines operates eight freighters on 39 global routes with an average daily uplift of 650 tonnes to 95 destinations globally.

Although Kenya is strategically placed to serve as the hub of air traffic for East and Central Africa, challenges like cargo long dwell time, which ranges between three to five days; lack of free storage facilities that cause demurrage charges; lengthy Customs documentation that delay cargo clearance; and numerous regulatory agencies with overlapping mandates are driving away traffic.

“These have negatively impacted shippers’ competitiveness on the global market and the growth of the sector,” says a report by the Shippers Council of Eastern Africa, which is studying Kenya’s air freight sub-sector.

About 18 per cent of Kenya’s total value of exports destined for international markets is transported by air. These are mainly high-value fresh vegetables, cut flowers and fish.

Globally, more than one-third of the value of goods traded is transported by air.


Fresh produce exporters, who are the main users of air transport at JKIA cargo centre, say the cost of doing business accounts for close to 55 per cent of the total export value.

“Agricultural producers have goods to export, but are simply unable to economically do so due to the cost and or lack of air cargo options,” says another report on costs and benefit of open skies in East Africa Community done by consulting firm InterVISTAS.

InterVISTAS says that addressing the challenges facing transporters, including liberalising the region’s airspace, would result in new markets for regional air cargo transport, thus allowing perishable goods to flow to key markets in the European Union, Asia and the US.

Despite the government investing about $150 million in upgrading JKIA over the past decade, these challenges continue to impact cargo volumes at the airport.

Airport underutilisation

Data from the Kenya Airports Authority shows that the volume of cargo handled at JKIA between March 2016 and March 2017 declined by two per cent, from 20.7 million tonnes to 20.3 million tonnes.

The authority, however, blamed underutilisation of the airport’s capacity for the dwindling cargo volumes. JKIA has a capacity of 5,000 tonnes a week but only 3,000 goes through every week.

At least 25 airlines operate cargo services out of JKIA, with Kenya Airways handling a paltry 65,000 tonnes annually.

In April, the airline opened a new cargo centre projecting to increase its annual revenue by $2 million.

Kenya’s two other international airports, Eldoret and Moi International Airport, recorded growth in cargo volumes at 21 per cent and 103 per cent respectively.

During the period, Eldoret handled one million tonnes, up from 845,985, while Mombasa handled 311,000 tonnes up from 153,000.

According to a report by the World Bank, the demand for air freight is limited by cost, typically priced about five times that of road transport and 15 times that of sea transport.

Air freight rates range from $1.50 to $4.50 per kilogramme, while the value of air cargo typically exceeds $4 per kilogramme.

Elections Must Not Subvert Schools’ Calendar – President Kenyatta

press release

Elections must not subvert the schools’ calendar and derail the next academic cycle, President Uhuru Kenyatta has said.

The President told thousands of supporters in Eldoret this evening that political interests should not be allowed to undermine the education of the Kenyan children.

He lambasted opposition leader Raila Odinga for saying ‘this year’s KCSE and KCPE candidates will not die if they do not sit for the national examinations’, saying that death and Kenyan children in the same sentence could only be attributed to someone for whom Kenya and Kenya’s future meant nothing.

“Kenyans children are important to us. They will do their exams without the interference of politics. They will join secondary school and go to college on schedule. We will not let anyone undermine our children,” President Kenyatta said.

He added: “And by our promise they will enjoy free primary and secondary education. They will not be subverted.”

Three stops in Eldoret marked the end of a day in which the President and Deputy President William Ruto swept through Bungoma, West Pokot and Uasin Gishu counties at the start of a campaign blitz for repeat elections on Oct 17.

DP Ruto buttressed the President’s message, saying: “That chap is joking. Our children, 1.5 million of them, will sit their exams. We care too much for our children to allow charlatans to subvert it.”


Kenya Airways Gets Permit For Direct U.S. Flights

The United States government has granted Kenya Airways #ticker:KQ a permit to operate direct flights to America. Read more »

Customs Agents Making Business At the Sirare Border Post Impossible

By Allan Olingo

Moses Ishirima is spending his third day at the Sirare border crossing, southwestern Kenya, waiting for his employer to send him $300 for a transit licence to enter Tanzania.

Ishirima’s truck is registered in Kenya but is carrying petroleum products from Eldoret, destined for northern Tanzania and therefore does not need a transit licence. The Customs officials insist it does.

“The Tanzania Customs officials keep shifting goalposts when it comes to transporting petroleum products into the country. They have introduced several fees and regulations which do not make sense,” Mr Ishirima says.

Northern Tanzania has traditionally depended on the Eldoret station of the Kenya Pipeline Company for petroleum products, since it is cheaper and more efficient to access as opposed to trucking them thousands of kilometres from the port of Dar es Salaam.

But Kenyan business people are now claiming that Tanzanian border officials are using haphazard levies and regulations to block petroleum products from Kenya from entering Tanzania through the Isebania and Sirare Customs border posts.

Tanzanian officials however, deny any ill-motive.

“We have no problem allowing petroleum products from Kenya into our country as the drivers and business people are claiming. We have laid down regulations which must be met, and that could be the misunderstanding,” said a Tanzania Customs official at the Sirare border post, saying that further queries should be addressed to the Tanzania Revenue Authority in Dar es Salaam.

Customs hurdles

At the Kenya-Tanzania traders forum in Dar es Salaam early this month, one of the issues raised was the Customs hurdles, with both countries’ traders citing the Sirare border post as one saddled with unnecessary regulations that hinder the smooth flow of goods across both sides.

When The EastAfrican visited the border post, there were more than 15 Tanzanian registered trucks detained by Kenyan Customs authorities, with an almost equal number enroute to Kenya detained on the Tanzanian side for issues ranging from the disregard of valid certificates of origin of products to charging of extra non-gazzeted Customs levies.

The business people also complained of arbitrary arrests when trying to ship maize from Tanzania into Kenya, noting that the blanket ban on maize exports by Tanzania was prohibitive and went against the free movement of goods, as enshrined in the Common Market Protocol.

“We have a very good market for grains in Kenya, which we have acquired legally in Tanzania. But we aren’t allowed to move them through the border forcing some of us to use the unofficial border crossings.

It gets worse when you are caught because they will even confiscate the trucks. This isn’t how we should be doing business. Such export bans should be done in consultation, so that it doesn’t interrupt business and livelihoods,” said Adam Hichira, a Tanzanian grain trader.

In May this year, Tanzania’s Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa issued a gain export ban, and called on the traders to engage in value addition by milling the maize instead and exporting flour, which he said would earn them more.

“We thought the signing of the Common Market Protocol would better the terms of trade for us but it has become a nightmare. There has been an increase in arbitrary refusal by the various border Customs agents to recognise the certificate of origin or the standardised charges, despite a joint communiqué signed by EAC countries to reduce non-tariff barriers.

We feel the much touted integration is just on paper and not actualised at these border points,” said Charles Kahuthu, regional co-ordinator at the East African Chamber of Commerce.

The Kenyan businessmen also complained of the high cost of regulations, and especially the inefficiencies in clearance, with some saying that the Single Customs Territory document processing in Tanzania takes up to 10 days instead of the expected three days, which increases the cost of doing business.

In May at the EAC Heads of State summit in Dar es Salam, the leaders directed their respective ministers in charge of EAC Affairs to resolve long-standing non-tariff barriers (NTBs) issues.

“The Heads of State noted with concern the declining intra-EAC trade and directed the Council of Ministers to resolve the issues and report to the 19th Summit,” reads part of a joint communique issued after the summit.

In the meeting, it was reported that at least 19 non-tariff barriers remain unresolved and the Council was tasked to resolve all of them by August 30.

EAC member countries have been trading blame over NTBs since the coming into effect of the Common Market.

Recently, Kenya and Tanzania engaged in a vicious trade war culminating in last month’s ban on select products from being traded in their respective markets.

The two countries are expected to have a bilateral trade meeting on September 18 in Dar es Salaam to resolve the trade issues.

All Eyes on Maraga as Petition Against Kenyatta Win Set to Start

By Sam Kiplagat

As National Super Alliance argues for the nullification of President Uhuru Kenyatta’s re-election on August 8, all eyes will be on Chief Justice David Maraga.

As the President of the Supreme Court, Justice Maraga will preside over the hearing of the presidential petition.

He is described by fellow judges as a humble and a hard working judge.

His predecessor, Dr Willy Mutunga, said soon after Mr Maraga’s appointment that in him, the Judicial Service Commission had found a judge of great integrity, focus and energy.


The former CJ hailed the process, saying it was open and competitive.

Mr Maraga beat 12 other contestants to emerge top in the race to succeed Dr Mutunga. He scored 84 marks.

Before his elevation to the Supreme Court, Justice Maraga was the presiding judge of the Court of Appeal in Kisumu.

The 65-year-old father of three also served as a judge of the High Court in Mombasa, Kisumu, Nakuru and Nairobi.


Before joining the bench, Mr Maraga practiced as an advocate in Nakuru.

His stint as a judge in Nakuru came to haunt him during the vetting process as he was accused of favouring one community.

The Sharad Rao-led vetting board, however, dismissed the allegations, saying they were baseless.

The accusation had to do with the murder trial of a former Eldoret traffic policeman Andrew Moache who had been charged with double murder of Ainamoi MP David Kimutai Too and his companion, Eunice Chepkwony.


Mr Maraga found the officer guilty of manslaughter and sentenced him to 10 years in prison, sparking protests.

The two were shot dead at West Indies estate in Eldoret on January 31, 2008.

Just a day before his nomination, Justice Maraga had handed a report on a fellow judge whom he investigated over corruption to President Kenyatta.

The tribunal he chaired found judge Joseph Mutava culpable of misconduct and recommended to the president for his removal.


He also chaired the Judiciary’s committee on election preparedness.

The committee was tasked with finding pitfalls from previous election petition hearings and it made wide recommendations on how to hear the petitions efficiently.

Recently, Mr Maraga moved to assert the independence of Judiciary, after constant attacks from both Jubilee and Nasa.

He told off Jubilee leaders over the handling of cases brought against IEBC.

The CJ said it was not his wish to respond to politicians, however, when the political leaders cast aspersions on the administration of justice based on a misinterpretation of his statements, it concerns him “a great deal”.

Holders Tusker Tackle Vihiga, Leopards Prey on Wazito

By Cellestine Olilo

Holders Tusker battle National Super League side Vihiga United at the Nyayo National Stadium on Sunday as the GOtv Shield tournament enters the business end.

Former champions AFC Leopards will also take on another second tier side Wazito at Nyayo Stadium on Sunday with the venue set to host all four quarterfinal matches this weekend.

It is the only trophy that Leopards have a realistic chance of lifting this season, leaving head coach Robert Matano under pressure to deliver the Cup they last won in 2013.

Since their 2-1 win over Bidco United in the last 16 of the competition three weeks ago, Leopards have suffered two losses and drawn once in the SportPesa Premier League.

Matano will be eager to guide his charges back to winning ways, with a semi-final slot up for grabs against Frank Ouna’s Wazito.

With this being their maiden quarter-finals appearance in the competition, Ouna admits that his charges are massive underdogs going into the match.

“We can’t compare ourselves to Leopards. They have good players, they have a lucrative sponsorship meaning that their players are more comfortable and more importantly, they have a coach who is experienced and who has won this particular cup before so it won’t be easy for us,” said Ouna.


In Saturday’s matches, Kariobangi Sharks face minnows Eldoret Youth hoping to continue with their fairytale run in the competition.

To get to this stage, Sharks stunned Sofapaka 3-1 in the last 16 at Nyayo, a result that makes them massive favourites going into this match.

“This is a team we don’t know much about so already that is a challenge. It makes the game highly unpredictable so we have to be very cautious in our approach,” Sharks coach William Muluya said.

Title holders Tusker will be without Noah Wafula (bereaved), Allan Wanga, Hashim Sempala, Martin Kizza and Moses Ndawula for their match against Vihiga United.

Vihiga, captained by former AFC Leopards playmaker Charles Okwemba, will be out to upset the stuttering brewers.

Bandari, winners in 2015, tackle Sony Sugar in the other quarter-final match up from 3.15pm on Saturday.

The winner of the tournament will walk away with a cash prize of Sh2 million and a ticket to represent Kenya in the Caf Confederation Cup next year.


Kariobangi Sharks v Eldoret Youth (Nyayo Stadium, 1pm)

Bandari v Sony Sugar (Nyayo Stadium, 3.15pm)


Vihiga United v Tusker (Nyayo Stadium, 1pm)

Wazito v AFC Leopards (Nyayo Stadium, 3.15pm)

All Eyes on CJ David Maraga as Raila Odinga Files Petition

By Sam Kiplagat and Patrick Lang’at

Two weeks after he was sworn in in October last year, Chief Justice David Maraga met opposition chief Raila Odinga at the Supreme Court for a one-and-a-half-hour meeting.

It was a way of the new president of the Supreme Court reaching out to all political actors, the Mr Odinga meeting coming just a few days after he met President Uhuru Kenyatta.


Accompanied by his co-principals Kalonzo Musyoka and Moses Wetang’ula, Mr Odinga reportedly poured his heart out to Mr Justice Maraga about his misgivings of the court, and why he stood the biggest chance to restore that confidence.

And at the heart of that test, CJ Maraga later said, was a potential presidential elections petition, on which the Supreme Court has the exclusive jurisdiction and whose decision is final.

“I want to assure the country that the Judiciary is prepared to handle any election petitions that may arise next year,” Mr Justice Maraga told Mr Odinga and his colleagues at the steps of the iconic building that houses Kenya’s highest court.

Judge Maraga would continually repeat his assertion that the court was ready to handle such a petition since then, and as late as a week to the high-stakes August 8 elections, whose results Mr Odinga has disputed and is expected to lodge a case today.


While the Supreme Court decision, which must be delivered on September 1, will be determined by seven judges of the court, all eyes will be on Justice Maraga.

This is because of his role as president of the court and presiding judge, and the fact that it is his biggest case yet.

Also, Judge Maraga will be the tie breaker should the other six judges tie in their votes.

And since the court was formed primarily for such a petition, it will be baptism by fire for the 66-year-old former Kisumu Court of Appeal presiding judge.

The court will, however, have the benefit of judges Mohamed Ibrahim, Prof Jackton Ojwang’, Dr Smokin Wanjala and Lady Justice Njoki Ndung’u who arbitrated a similar petition in 2013.


Those who took the oath of office with the CJ are his deputy Lady Justice Philomena Mwilu, and Justice Isaac Lenaola.

A furiously independent-minded judge, Justice Maraga is a staunch Seventh Day Adventist church elder who has in the recent months stamped the authority of the Judiciary against attacks by politicians.

So strong is his faith that during the interviews for the job in which he beat 14 other contestants, Justice Maraga said he could not compromise his going to church on Saturday for work.

“It would be very difficult for me to sit on a Saturday to hear a case,” he told the Judicial Service Commission.


“I would rather talk with my colleagues in the court to accommodate me and exempt me from sitting if the hearing extends to a Saturday.”

Given the 14-day window to hear and determine a presidential petition includes the weekends, it remains to be seen how the soft-spoken judge will navigate the waters in the high-stakes case.

The father of three also served as a judge of the High Court in Mombasa, Kisumu, Nakuru and Nairobi.

Before joining the bench, Mr Maraga practised as an advocate in Nakuru.

As the presiding judge in Nakuru, Maraga handled the murder trial of a former Eldoret traffic policeman- Andrew Moache, who had been charged with double murder of Ainamoi MP David Kimutai Too and his companion Eunice Chepkwony.


Judge Maraga found the officer guilty of manslaughter and sentenced him to 10 years in prison, sparking protests.

The two were shot dead at West Indies Estate in Eldoret on January 31, 2008.

He is also chaired the judiciary’s committee on election preparedness.

The committee was tasked with finding pitfalls from previous election petition hearings and it made wide recommendations on how to hear the petitions efficiently.

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