Posts tagged as: discovery

Tanzania: Researchers Say They Have New Anti-Malaria Drugs

By Deus Ngowi

Arusha — BREAKTHROUGH in the fight against the deadly malaria is on the horizon, with Arusha-based researchers coming up with new drugs.

The African Technical Research Centre (ATRC) is behind the discovery of the new drugs –SumiShield and SumiLove –touted as the lasting solution to the malady. Working with A to Z Mills at Kisongo Matheves here, ATRC parades SumiShield as an indoor residual spray (IRS).

The A to Z Chief Executive Officer, Kalpesh Shah, said here during the weekend that SumiShield drug, with a new mode of action chemistry based on the neonicotinoid insecticide clothianidin, is designed to help in combating insecticide resistance.

He noted that benefiting from a non-repellent formulation and low mammalian toxicity, SumiShield 50WG is simple to use and has light-weight packaging for easy transportation. Resistance is one of the major issues facing the global fight against malaria, affecting 75 per cent of countries.

Rotating insecticides is one of the key strategies to avoid resistance but nearly 90 per cent of affected countries fail largely due to lack of choices.

The drug has non-repellent formula, meaning that resting mosquitoes could be exposed to the drug for longer than other insecticides, increasing mortality and reducing the chances of developing resistance.

Field trials have also shown that SumiShield 50WG has residual efficacy of at least six months after spraying. SumiShield is said to have a low mammalian toxicity through skin contact and is practically non-toxic to bird and aquatic life.

Mr Shah said the facility has played major part in war against malaria by facilitating survival of mother and baby through use of the company’s manufactured resistant drugs.

He said that through the centre, A to Z will continue supporting Tanzania and Africa in researches on various pesticides for the fight against the deadly disease.

In addition to the achievements, Mr Kalpesh said that A to Z in collaboration with their Japanese partners – Sumitomo, have established another field research centre at Mabogini area, in Kilimanjaro region.

He said that the station will work under ATRC Mothers Centre in Arusha, noting that he preferred having the centre at Mabogini where there are rice fields that retain water for almost the entire year, offering one of the main mosquitoes breeding areas.

“Today we launch this facility almost a year since the death of former CEO and founder of A to Z, Mr Anuj Shah (RIP), the centre will work hard to find the lasting solution and ensure we have the best drugs to eradicate malaria in the country and in Africa, ” said Mr Kalpesh.

Launching the drugs, Japanese Ambassador to Tanzania Masaharu Yoshida said he was happy at the discovery of the new drugs, as malaria has been too perilous to Tanzanians and Africans.

He said the centre, which is jointly owned by a joint venture with Japan’s Sumitomo and A-Z, has been working well to help researches on pesticides that help to combat diseases and pesticides in crops.

“I have been hearing the good work you do and today I have come to see myself; in five years you have worked for a lot of antibiotic treatments, including drug nets and storage bags,” he said.

The ambassador promised that the Japanese government would sustain support to Tanzania in various sectors, including medical researchers, to address deadly diseases. Sumitomo’s Chief Executive Officer, Atsuko Hirooka also attended the event. Mosquitoes prefer stagnant water within which they lay eggs.

They most commonly infest ponds, marshes, swamps and other wetland habitats.

However, they are capable of thriving in a variety of locations and can successfully grow in numbers even when not in their natural habitat. Many mosquito species use water containers as egg-deposit sites.

Uganda: Australian Firm Gets Kanywataba Exploration License

By Alon Mwesigwa

Armour Energy Limited, an Australia-listed firm, has signed a production sharing agreement with Uganda to explore, develop and produce oil in the Kanywataba block in Ntoroko district.

The company becomes the first firm to receive an exploration license under the country’s new competitive bidding round.

Irene Muloni, the minister of Energy and Mineral Development, said government was still negotiating with other companies for the remaining blocks and they would be able to sign agreements soon.

Muloni told reporters at the energy ministry offices yesterday that sustained low oil prices affected the process of licensing, leading to protracted negotiations.

Under Uganda’s production sharing agreements, companies shoulder the entire cost, including risk of exploration. Companies are not entitled to any compensation if they hit a dry well.

Armour Energy CEO Roger Crissey said the firm had recently moved from being entirely focused on exploration to oil production as well. He said the company maintained a long-term investment outlook for Uganda.

Armour Energy Ltd says on its website that it was “focused on the discovery, development and production of world- class gas and associated liquids resources.”

The firm is also expected to conduct a seismic survey soon and drill at least one well.

“It will also pay royalty based on the gross total daily production in barrels of oil per day. The rate of royalty [will vary] from 8.5 per cent to 21 per cent,” Muloni said.

Production sharing will be based on the profitability of the project, she said. The company has paid government $316,000 (Shs 1.1bn) in signature bonuses, research and training fees and annual acreage rental fees.

Armour Energy Ltd has also paid a $990,000 (Shs 3.56bn) performance guarantee as 50 per cent of the minimum exploration expenditure for the first period. Cnooc drilled a single well in the Kanywataba block in May 2012, but did not strike oil. In October 2012, Cnooc relinquished the license to government.

Government said it was confident the block had hydrocarbons. Meanwhile, Muloni said they had agreed to issue Oranto Petroleum Ltd from Nigeria an exploration license over the Ngassa block.

Other companies expected to be given licenses are Waltersmith Petroman Oil Ltd. In the Albertine graben, nine production licenses have been issued to Total, Cnooc, and Tullow.

Muloni said the field development plans for the three discoveries of Jobi-East, Mpyo, and Lyec were being discussed between government and the licensees so that they can be issued production licenses.

Robert Kasande, the permanent secretary in the energy ministry, said the latest licensing round has seen the government develop a state-of-the-art data room, which remains open to industry players for viewing and purchasing data.


Court Throws Drug Authority Boss Out of Office

The appointment of Ms Donna Asiimwe Kusemererwa as the executive director of National Drug Authority (NDA) in January… Read more »

TRC Calls On Local Administration to Protect Discovered Mass Graves

By Diane Uwimana

The results of the testimonies given in the two provinces (central provinces of Mwaro and Karuzi) over a period between 9 and 29 August gave a total of 4792 persons who were entrusted to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission-TRC. Bishop Jean Louis Nahimana, chairman of the commission says 1624 people came to confide to the members of the commission in Mwaro Province.

Many people from Mwaro province came to the TRC to give their testimonies: 480 from Nyabihanga commune, 110 from Ndava commune, 433 others from Kayokwe commune, 216 from Bisoro commune, 101 from Gisozi commune and another 283 from Rusaka commune.

In addition to these testimonies, says the chair of the commission, mass graves in Mwaro province after the 1972 and 1993 crises were also found. “110 mass graves were discovered in different places”, says Bishop Nahimana.

He, however, says this does not mean that the discovery is over, as citizens continue to reveal other places where victims have been illegally buried. “These mass graves are verified on the spot by members of the commission”, he says.

In Karusi province, the work continues and more than 3168 people have confided to the members of the commission during three weeks that they spent in that province. 383 were from Buhiga commune, 628 from Gitaramuka commune, 504 from Bugenyuzi commune, 306 from Nyabikere commune, 512 from Mutumba commune and 482 others from Gihogazi commune.

In addition to these testimonies, the members of the Commission also met 30 people who witnessed the 1972 and 1993 killings in Karuzi province and another 20 in Mwaro province. “This receipt of the depositions really marked the beginning of the operational phase of TRC”, he says.

On 31 December 2016, the Commission collected 472 testimonies in three communes of Bujumbura city.

Bishop Jean Louis Nahimana urges the local administration to protect the discovered mass graves so that perpetrators of the then crimes may not cover their tracks.

Aloys Batungwanayo, Chairperson of the Association for the Memory and Protection of Humanity against International Crimes- AMEPCI-Gira Ubuntu, said that there is an estimated 2,500 mass graves in Burundi from 1972 to date.

He said, according to the survey conducted by the association, those mass graves are located in all communes of Burundi, in military camps, toilets and pits while other dead bodies were thrown into the rivers.

The National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation-TRC was created in December 2014 with a four -year term. Its objective is to establishing the truth on what happened in Burundi including the identification of mass graves and reconciliation among Burundians as well.


Local Businessmen Eye Burundi Market

TANZANIA Trade Development Authority (TANTRADE) in partnership with Tanzanian Embassy in Burundi and Tanzania Ports… Read more »

Nyege Nyege’s Dance in the Mud Pays Off

By Andrew Kaggwa

Nyege Nyege International Music festival first happened in October 2015 and like a curse, it rained for three days straight, transforming the festival into a dance in the mud.

This forced organizers to change dates to September, and at the just-concluded third edition of the festival, as if to mock the organisers’ decision, the heavens opened up again.

For the three days of the festival at Nile Discovery Beach resort in Jinja, unprecedented rains came down during performances but like in the first edition, they soaked clothes but never dampened the mood of revelers, most of whom had travelled from Kampala. They danced in the rain and if anything, seemed to be enjoying the fete more because of the pouring rain.

Friday having been Eid al- Adha and thus a public holiday, the number of campers at the festival was bigger and it was a commercial success, as a source told The Observer that before Thursday they had sold about 6,000 tickets.

This year, in partnership with Talent Africa and Bell Lager, the festival got the word out like never before, with billboards across town and social media influencers talking about the event.

Four buses came from Nairobi with Kenyan Nyege Nyege fans, while other communities from South Africa, DR Congo and Tanzania also travelled in groups for the festival. Nyege Nyege never promises too much on the main stage; in fact, it is the experience of being there that always stands out.

Even with acts such as Haka Mukiga, Byg Ben Sukuya, A Ka Dope band, Jackie Akello, Maro and Kongoloko, among others, it was the DJ mixes that the audience craved more.

This year, the three-day event switched things up to include music genres not paid attention to in the past; this saw them programme a number of folklore artistes as well as curating a stage for reggae.

And in the middle of it all, people were dancing into the wee hours of the morning each day. From the time the festival opened at 2pm on Friday, the music did not stop until Monday morning at about 6am, despite the steady downpour; patrons stomped the resort’s grounds into a pool of mud.

Trust Kampala’s slay queens; they came ready with gumboots and managed to look amazing even there, on the muddy dance floor.

This year’s edition was the biggest organisers have had, and one of the artistes present was overheard saying: “Nyege Nyege is going to take the African festival circuit by storm.”


The most coveted regional festival ticket in the past has been the one to Sauti Za Busara in Zanzibar; well, watch out for Nyege Nyege. Not so much because of the music on stage, but more for the extras offered by its setting on the banks of River Nile and away from the KCCA curfews.

Patrons bought tickets online at Shs 130,000 (Shs 150,000 at the gates) and for the early birds this fee even came with a tent for the three days. Others carried their own tents, while most of the Ugandan patrons not big on camping (they called those of us who pitched tents, mzungu) opted to book into hotels.

When the festival kicked off, it was day and night partying, eating and sleeping in no particular order but as the urge hit, until Monday morning.

For breaks, some revelers tasted Jinja’s nightlife and hotels, went white water rafting, bungee jumping and took canoe rides. Soon it was time to head home saturated with fun, leaving the resort with a massive cleanup and landscaping job ahead!

Why Conservation of Mountain Gorillas’ Habitat is a Win-Win

opinionBy Fred K. Nkusi

Last Friday, I was so excited to attend for the very first time, the annual gorillas naming ceremony, Kwita Izina that was held in Kinigi Sector, Musanze District.

It was the 13th edition of the ceremony, held on a sunny day. The mood was stunning and ecstatic.

19 baby gorillas were given different names by stakeholders in tourism, conservationists, and globally renowned celebrities among other guests that graced the colorful event.

Most of the names given to baby gorillas reflected a flurry of useful meanings specifically linked to Rwanda’s culture, identity, home-grown initiatives, and other important aspects of our national values.

This event is typically held at Volcanoes National Park, the home to the rare mountain gorillas. The park lies in northwestern part of the country and borders Virunga National Park in the DRC and Mgahinga Gorilla National Park in Uganda.

The Volcanoes National Park is widely known as a haven for the rare and endangered mountain gorilla. Today, it is estimated that 400 of these Mountain gorillas live within Rwandan territory.

These Gorillas have thicker fur, and more of it, compared to other great apes. The fur helps them to survive in a habitat where temperatures at times drop below zero degrees.

An interesting question is: why are mountain gorillas specially conserved?

First, to quote President Kagame; “Mountain gorillas are a part of our natural resources and our heritage. It is everyone’s responsibility to conserve and protect biodiversity.

In protecting gorillas, we have everything to gain”. This generally implies that the rates of loss of animal and plant species, arable land, water quality, tropical forests and cultural heritage are especially serious.

The obligation to conserve critically engendered mountain gorillas as well as other endangered animals springs from the principle of the inter-generational equity. In particular, it relates to equity between species which comes from respect resulting from the intrinsic value of nature regardless of its usefulness for the benefit of humans.

In this regard, equity between species is expressed in the preamble of the World Charter for Nature, which says “mankind is a part of nature and life depends on the uninterrupted functioning of natural systems, which ensure the supply of energy and nutrients.”

In this perspective, all components of the environment have value, not only because of their usefulness to humans, but also as essential elements of an interdependent system that must be protected.

Peaceful co-existence of humans and gorillas is evident and productive. As a matter of fact, gorillas give birth every year and have significantly increased in numbers. But, if human activity turn out to be a detriment to gorillas habitat the chances of their survival would be extremely minimal.

Second, since the discovery of the mountain gorilla subspecies in 1902, its population has endured years of war, hunting, habitat destruction and disease – threats so severe that it was once thought the species might be extinct by the end of the twentieth century.

As a result, governments, including Rwanda, have put in place regulatory and policy frameworks to conserve the remaining populations of mountain gorillas. As of now, no more poaching and encroachment by humans.

The goal is to ensure the conservation of mountain gorillas and their regional afromontane forest habitat in Rwanda, Uganda and the DRC. When mountain gorillas come into contact with humans they can be vulnerable to human diseases; which gorillas experience in more severe forms.

Mountain gorillas can even die from the common cold. However, studies have found that mountain gorillas that are regularly habituated with researchers and tourists have survived better than unvisited gorillas; they benefit from the greater protection available in those areas and from regular monitoring.

Increased survival is also largely due to better veterinary care of sick and injured gorillas. Therefore, conservation of mountain gorillas and their habitat is hugely important, as an integral part of environmental protection.

Of course, this calls for strengthening mechanisms for the respective countries to develop a regional approach to the conservation of a shared habitat. To improve the protection of mountain gorillas and their habitat, Rwanda, Uganda and the DRC should empower the relevant authorities to adopt a consistent, collaborative approach to conservation policy and legislation throughout the Albertine Rift and Great Rift Valley.

Third, international gorilla tourism generates revenues. The annual revenue earned directly from gorilla tourism is an important component of funding conservation and management of the parks, as well as local and national economies.

Just last year, as reiterated by CEO-RDB Clare Akamanzi, Rwanda earned more than $400 million from tourism and 5 per cent is invested in community development oriented projects through revenue sharing schemes.

Thus, gorilla tourism accounts for the majority of tangible benefits being derived from these animals. Tourism remains the biggest foreign exchange earner in Rwanda. It contributes about 30 percent of export goods and services in Rwanda.

It doesn’t only benefit the government in terms of revenues, but also benefits local communities surrounding national parks by revenue-sharing. It obviously improves their livelihoods.

And, in turn, they’re willing to cooperate with relevant authorities in preventing or combating any threats to the mountain gorillas habitat, as well as to other protected animals in the national parks.

The writer is an international law expert.

Two Ugandans Escape From Police Cells

By Stella Cherono

Police in Kasarani are looking for two Ugandans, who escaped from custody on Wednesday.

The two, Robert Okoko and Ronald Wambeye had just completed a three-month jail term in Kamiti Maximum Prison and were to be deported.

Police officers from Kasarani Police Station noticed the two were missing as they prepared to take suspects to court.

“We have started investigations into the circumstances under which they went missing,” Nairobi County Police Commander Japhet Koome said.

He said police officers, who were on duty when the suspects escaped, had been interrogated over the incident.

Sources at the Kasarani Police Station said there were no signs of jail break at the cells.

Elsewhere, a prison warder reported to have been missing since August 2 was found dead in his house within Industrial Area Prison in Nairobi.

The body of George Otieno was found in his bed after fellow officers decided to break the door on Wednesday after looking for him for 20 days.

Makadara OCPD Nehemiah Langat said investigations to ascertain the cause of his death has started.

The discovery of the officer’s body comes just a day after the body of an Administration Police officer suspected to have shot himself, was discovered in a ditch in Landi Mawe.

The officer’s firearm, which was loaded with 11 rounds of ammunition, was found next to his body.


Accept Judges’ Verdict, Kenyatta Tells Odinga

President Kenyatta has called on Raila Odinga to accept Supreme Court judgement on the petition the Nasa leader filed. Read more »

MP Lays Emphasis On Self-Help Spirit

By Suleiman Shagata

Shinyanga — Special Seats Member of Parliament in Shinyanga Region, Ms Azza Hilal, has donated an assortment of items worth 33 million shillings, to some wards there.

In her remarks, she expressed dismay over the discovery that at Tinde Health Centre, which was established nearly one century ago, children and adults shared a ward. The scenario, the legislator lamented, was horrific, because, being vulnerable, they should be accommodated separately from adults.

She also stressed that community members should expel the notion of total dependence on the government and donors, and cultivate a volunteering spirit and selfreliance culture instead.

Elaborating, she said that, once pooled, whatever little money and labour everyone would contribute, would add up to a significant resource. This, she explained, could be invested in socially beneficial projects like dispensary buildings, adding that the initiatives would inspire better-resourced benefactors to donate top-ups in the form of money and materials.

She remarked further: “Your leaders, such as the MP and ward councillor, have several commitments, and so, do not expect them to initiate development projects for you. You should do so, and once they pick up momentum and they notice the progress, they will compliment your initiatives.”

Ms Hilal advised expectant mothers to refrain from delivering babies in risky environments at their homes, and use modern facilities instead.

In his reaction, the Tinde Ward councillor, Mr Jafal Kanolo, said community members had been eager to make contributors for development projects, but they were frustrated by dishonest leaders who pocketed their funds. During the tour, the MP donated medical equipment, beds and chairs in Shinyanga and Kishapu districts.


Increased Budget Allocation to Push Govt Industrial Drive

The Ministry of Industry, Trade and Investment has doubled development budget in the 2017/18 financial year, pushing the… Read more »

Tanzania: Stamigold to Generate 350 Billion/ – in Two Years

Mwanza — State-owned gold mining company, Stamigold, is set to mine record 120,000 ounces of gold worth over 350bn/- in the next two years.

All is set for the job expected to start next month, with the firm’s General Manager, Mr Denis Sebugwao, saying explorations have already indicated the possibility of attaining the historical reserves.

According to Mr Sebugwao, the explorations undertaken in the Western Zone of the mine site have shown deposits amounting to 26,000 ounces and that of the Eastern zone has over 85000 ounces.

“We are glad to announce this historical milestone achieved by our public owned mining firm, with the two areas showing great potential in gold deposits never achieved before and which will be the biggest since the mining commenced in 2014,” he said.

He said the discovery of gold in the areas will require heavy investment of nearly 44 million US dollars (about 90bn/-) with strategies already in place to secure the funds from different sources.

Giving a brief statistics, Mr Sebugwao said up to March this year, the Company had produced over 51,000 ounces and at least 5,000 ounces of different concentrates all worth 127bn/-.

Due to the recorded income, the company has paid different government dues of about 35bn/-, with 515m/- committed to Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) activities in the villages surrounding the mine.

Mr Sebugwao maintained that a series of explorations will be undertaken in future, with one continuing on T 7 area and other nine sites with prospects of attaining over 70,000 ounces that will help to increase the life span of the mine for another two years.

Other master plans in the pipeline include the expansion of the processing plant to at least double the capacity, the investment likely to cost over 15 million US dollars.

“Reduction of production costs is one of our major targets and we plan to purchase the brand new mining machines worth over 12 million dollars, with soft loan from Exim Bank of China,” he said, hinting that the loan will be repaid in five years at a two per cent interest rate.

The purchase of own machines will relieve the company of the 10 million dollars it spends annually on renting equipment from private dealers.

Another achievement, according to Mr Sebugwao, is the agreement on power connection from the national grid before the end of next year if all goes well, again relieving the company of millions of money it pays for running the power generators.

He however pleaded for continued government support for the company to effectively undertake its operations and appreciated the Ministry of Energy and Minerals, which is about to allocate 10bn/- to fund different expenses.

South Africa: Bhekisisa Journalist Scoops Impactafrica Award

Reporter Pontsho Pilane has been recognised for her reporting on menstruation.

Bhekisisa health reporter Pontsho Pilane has won an impactAfrica award for her reporting on access to healthy, safe and dignified menstruation.

Pilane won the fourth round of the impactAfrica competition, which sought to award stories that shed light on the challenges women and girls face in accessing healthcare and health services. The award acknowledges a series of pieces by Pilane on menstruation that covered issues such as inequities in people’s access to sanitary pads or alternatives as well as pushes for the introduction of government-subsidised pads.

For Pilane, who was named Vodacom Young Journalist of the Year in 2016, this is the latest accolade recognising her deep commitment to covering gender issues.

She will also join Chris Roper, deputy director at Code for Africa and International Centre for Journalists Knight Fellow, on a panel at the World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers’ World News Media Congress in Durban in June.

Pilane has also been named as a finalist in this year’s Discovery Health Journalism awards alongside Bhekisisa news editor Laura Lopez Gonzalez and senior multimedia journalist Demelza Bush.

Former Bhekisisa journalist Ina Skosana is also a finalist in the features category and Mail & Guardian business journalist Lynley Donnelly is up for an award for best health economics reporting.

In a statement released this week, Discovery Health judges said the quality of entries this year was exceptional and noted that it was a challenge to identify the finalists. They commended reporters for improving knowledge and encouraging public interest in matters that shape health and healthcare.

Pilane will accompany fellow impactAfrica award-winner and M&G environmental reporter Sipho Kings on a study tour of the United States. Kings was also awarded the prestigious Nieman Fellowship this week and will attend Harvard University in August.

South Africa

Malema Slams ‘Apartheid Criminal’ De Klerk

Economic Freedom Fighters leader Julius Malema says former African National Congress presidents Kgalema Motlanthe and… Read more »

Rhino Fausta to Take Rhino Frida On a Date

By Amby Lusekelo

MAY 3 is World Press Freedom Day. Oh, happy day I thought to myself then laughed out loud. I inherited my late Dad’s sense of humour because I see the sense of humour in anything.

If all else fails, I will consider becoming a stand-up comic but that’s a story for another day.

But seriously, the words ‘press’ and ‘freedom’, being so completely dissociated in the country right now but mark my words, there will be someone, somewhere who will issue a press release commemorating the day.

The press release will give [fake] praise and all that good stuff and the press corps will be encouraged to keep doing their jobs confidently as if they were working to the Promised Land. World Press Freedom Day will be just another Wednesday in Tanzania because we have to watch it.

We really, really, have to watch it. However, do you know who does not have to watch it? Rhino Fausta. Did you know this 54-year-old rhino (yes, a wild animal) is living it up in Ngorongoro Conservation Area and costing the government 64m/- per month? That is approx. $30,000 Rhino Fausta is living it up and has nothing to worry about and absolutely does not do any watching.

This discovery was made when the minister in charge of Natural Resources and Tourism Minister admitted in parliament that the government was spending this amount per month for the wild animal. Apologies, I mean Rhino Fausta.

There was no mention of Rhino John who was also being ‘maintained’ by the government. Everybody seems to have forgotten about Rhino John but, let me watch it. Rhino Fausta did not received any memos regarding having to watch anything really. Not the amount he uses on his food allowance, not his cable TV subscriptions (home and office), not his monthly entertainment allowance and not even his wardrobe allowance.

This has got to be the only way to explain 64m/- (approx. $30,000) per month expense that the government of the united republic of Tanzania is spending on this wild animal. Gosh, I apologise again. I mean Rhino Fausta.

In an effort to understand this issue, a friend of mine decided that Rhino Fausta was actually being kept at such an expense not for research as was claimed because really, how much can you learn from a 54-year-old rhino?? But rather because he was being groomed to mate with a Rhino Frida to produce a Rhino Filip.

In a show of solidarity with the government, you know, being patriotic citizens and all, we decided that this was in fact the only reason. That the government of the united republic, is actually sponsoring the preparation for a real expensive date.

At 54 years of age, Rhino Fausta is the luckiest bachelor in Tanzania because really, as other bachelors are struggling to take their dates out in this economy, he has the government covering the bill. Meanwhile, where is Rhino John? Actually, never mind.

Twitter: @ambylusekelo Twitter: @ambylusekelo


More Pregnant Women Go to Hospital

AS the world prepares to mark the International Day of the Midwife (IDM) 2017, health officers here said more expectant… Read more »

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