Posts tagged as: chairman

Zimbabwe:Cash Shortages Affecting ZB Financial Holdings

Cash Shortage have led to minimized borrowing from customers which in turn led to the decrease in net earnings from lending and trading activities by 15%, from US$17.5 million to US$14.8 million, ZB Financial Holdings has revealed.

According to the Group Chairman. Ronald Mutandagayi’s financial report for the year ended 31 December 2017, cash shortages have led to a decreased use of cash and promoted the use of ‘plastic money.

“Banking fees, commissions and other income increased by $6.2m, from $35.3m to $41.5m. This was driven by the increased usage of the electronic banking platforms and the resultant increase in commissions on electronic transactions.

“This was the silver lining to the cash shortages in the country which led to a decreased use of cash and promoted the use of ‘plastic money.

“This shortage of cash, however, led to minimized borrowing from customers which in turn led to the net earnings from lending and trading activities decreasing by 15%, from $17.5 million to $14.8 million.

“This was after taking account an impairment charge of $3 million. Lending activities (interest on loans) are the traditional revenue earner for banks, not non-funded income and the Chief Executive acknowledged this, ‘he said.

Meanwhile, the group’s net profit after tax for the year ended 31 December 2017 was up 36%, from $11.4 million recorded in 2016 to $15.5million which Mutandagayi said was as a result of the strong performance of non-funded income.

“This impressive increase was as a result of the strong performance of non-funded income, otherwise known as fees and commissions or bank charges.

“However, if the impairment charge of $3m is set aside, net income and related income (gross interest income less related interest expenses) increased by 6%, from $16.7m to $17.8m.

“This was despite the gross income decreasing by 10%. The net income interest increased because the related interest expenses decreased by 35%,” he said.


Former Politician Kereke in Fresh Bail Application

Former Zanu-PF Bikita West legislator Munyaradzi Kereke,46, who is serving an effective nine year prison sentence for… Read more »

Naspers Closes Down OLX Offices in Kenya

London — A range of stats show that Africa’s digital content and services sector has grown and African consumers are using online services more than ever before. But the continuing high costs of consumer data and the challenges of e-commerce make it a far from easy road. Russell Southwood looks at what these two pieces of news – the Zinox deal and the OLX office closures – tell us about the developing digital services sector.

In retrospect, the sale of Konga was probably an inevitable consequence of Kinnevik deciding that Africa was not making enough money to justify staying there. Before this point, Millicom had been developing a digital strategy and Kinnevik had been investing in emerging digital services start-ups. For example, besides Konga, it also invested US$5 million in Deal Dey in 2015.

With the decision to pull-out, it has slowly been liquidating the portfolio of investments. Its free-to-air broadcast arm was sold to Econet Media with its CEO Joe Hundah at the helm. Recently MTG sold Trace TV, the global hip-hop and sports channel operator. It also sold its shareholding in Rocket in 2017.

It would have sold its African Tigo operations as one but there were clearly no buyers. It’s the same problem Airtel has. So it has been forced to enter into two merger deals and clearly will look for more mergers or buyers in the future.

So the key question for anyone trying to read the tea-leaves is: is the lack of a perceived business opportunity in Africa something that is particular to Kinnevik’s circumstances (and its rate of return) or a broadly correct commercial judgement. Is it just that Millicom has been a mobile loser or is there some broader lack of profitability about the emerging mobile and digital space in Africa?

When I spoke to Shola Adekoya, CEO, Konga (who will be staying on in the new company under Zinox) in July 2017 (see here) it was clear that original model was undergoing significant change. The sale of high-end electrical goods and mobile phones that had driven the first phase was no longer producing the return customers. At that point, 90% of its turnover comes from its Marketplace where individual merchants hold the inventory and 10% from direct sales (see also article).

In November 2017, the changes made clearly were not producing a sufficient turnaround so the company sacked 60% of its staff. Alongside that, it stopped its pay-on-delivery option mainly due to the frequency of cancelled orders and security challenges often faced by delivery personnel. It also shut its warehouse service and started changing merchants rental fees.

Local PC assembler and high-end IT solutions company Zinox bought the company for a widely rumoured US$10 million but Zinox spokesmen Gideon Ayogu told Quartz that the amount was “way higher”. But whatever the price, the point is that Kinnevik was prepared to take a significant hit on the considerable sum it had invested to get out. Naspers, who will come to again below, also lost out. Among the asset portfolio sold is mobile pasyment platform KongaPay which has a reported 100,000 subscribers.

Zinox launched an e-commerce platform, BuyRightAfrica in 2008 but was probably too early to market and closed it in 2013. Zinox Chairman Chairman Leo Stan Ekeh told Technology Times:”It failed because I started too early and there was not the human capital to support it.” It’s probably not entirely coincidental that Zinox’s Chairman Leo Stan Ekeh has a son Nnamdi Ekeh who owns an e-commerce platform called Yudala. According to his father the business is now averaging N50-100 million in daily sales and wants to get to N500 million a day by the end of the year. Ekeh senior said he can easily imagine N 1 billion a day when the economy bounces back. Zinox does not own the company but Ekeh is a personal investor in it.

Also this week Naspers shut down its online classifieds operation OLX in Kenya and Nigeria, which it entered in 2012. According to a company statement:” We made a difficult but important decision in Nigeria to consolidate our operations between some of our offices internationally.”

“Our marketplace will continue to operate here – uninterrupted – as it has since 2010, and we remain committed to the many people here who use our platform to buy and sell every month. We continue to be focused on constantly innovating to make sure that OLX remains the top classifieds platform in the country.” In other words, it would like to continue operating there but without the expense of local offices.

In an interview in Digital Content Africa Riccardo Pasqualotto, Founder and Sales Director, Mobi Hunter gave me OLX monthly reach page views for a range of African countries as someone advertising on the site: Nigeria (40 million page views); Kenya (64 million page views); South Africa (35 million page views); Ghana (23 million page views) and Uganda (7 million page views). The average time spent on the site was 19 minutes.

Two observations are worth making: Firstly, there is an increased level of competition with lots of classifieds-style sales being made informally off Facebook and indeed Facebook has recently launched a business sales platform. Secondly, although the Nigerian economy is better, the legendary “disposable income” of former years is less in evidence.

E-commerce requires time for behavior change and trust. Clearly the hybrid method used in Nigeria – where the customer pays on the doorstep is fraught with risks – may not be the way to go. People need to develop enough trust to make online payments . They have enough trust to use free services like Facebook and You Tube but it will take time for consumers to change their behavior in relation to paid-for services. Meanwhile cheaper and more reliable data services would also make things easier.

Nigeria:UK Hits 95 Percent Broadband Penetration As Nigeria Struggles At 21 Percent

By Adeyemi Adepetun

The United Kingdom Government has disclosed that 95 per cent of premises within the country now have access to superfast broadband.

U.K. Minister for Secretary of State, Digital, Culture, Media and Sport, Matt Hancock, who announced the milestone, praised the government, especially for deeming it possible to encourage superfast broadband rollouts in areas deemed less commercially attractive by operators.

This is coming on the heels of Nigeria’s struggle towards attaining a 30 per cent penetration set for end of this year. Nigeria currently has 21 per cent penetration.

Hancook explained that over the last five years, the government’s rollout of superfast broadband has made superfast speed a reality for more than 4.5 million homes and businesses, who would otherwise have missed out.

“We’ve delivered on our commitment to reach 95 per cent of homes and businesses in the U.K., but there’s still more to do in our work building a Britain that’s fit for the future. We’re reaching thousands more premises every single week, and the next commitment is to making affordable, reliable, high speed broadband a legal right to everyone by 2020,” he stated.

The U.K. Government categorises superfast broadband as a connection which is able to deliver speeds of 24 Mbps or faster. In the rural communities and those less attractive to profit-hungry telcos, these government initiatives are claimed to have 50,000 new local jobs and generating an additional £8.9billion in turnover.

Though, the Nigerian Communications Commission (NCC), has assured that Nigeria would meet and surpass the 30 per cent penetration target, however, stakeholders are sort of sceptical. They based their argument on the National Broadband Plan (NBP), which is not been followed adequately.

According to them, the NBP is a five-year plan (2013 to 2018), with each year having a particular target, “but as it is now, we are nowhere near achieving any substantial part of the plan. So, achieving 30 per cent penetration by year end appears bleak.”

Besides, they explained that the operating environment and policies of government in relation to deployment and protection of telecommunications infrastructure does not encourage investment.

The Chairman, Association of Licensed Telecommunications Operators of Nigeria (ALTON), Gbenga Adebayo, expressed concern over issues of interference by state government agencies and their consultants in shutting down operators’ base stations as well as lack of strong will on the part of the Federal Government in driving stakeholders to bring about stability in the industry.

“How can you achieve 30 per cent broadband penetration when efforts that are supposed to be channelled to network optimisation are used in repairing shut down towers by state government agencies?” he queried.

From his perspective, a telecoms expert, Kehinde Aluko, agreed that there is no basis for comparing Nigeria with U.K., especially from the level of developed infrastructure to favourable government policies, to harmonised tax systems, to various incentives and regular power supply. “So in Nigeria, all these are not available. You can imagine how difficult it has been for us to meet 30 per cent. I think our government should wake up.”

To the President, Association of Telecommunications Companies of Nigeria (ATCON), Olusola Teniola, “the industry is worried about the fact that at the end of Jan 2018, NCC has not officially approved the remaining InfraCo licences. Besides, the 21 per cent penetration has stagnated with no obvious investments being made by our members and others in the industry to roll out extensive optic fibre or carry out any relevant CAPEX program spending.

“The Ministry of Communications has created a committee to look into the harmonisation of Rights of Ways in the country. However, there isn’t yet any implementation and a way forward in addressing the many market gaps that exist in the broadband landscape. As always, ATCON is engaging with government to address the issues that are delaying the approval of the remaining InfraCo licences and is placing emphasis on the need to work with government to remove barriers to Rights of Ways.”

The Executive Vice Chairman of NCC, Prof. Umar Danbatta, had at different times promised to complete the licensing of the remaining five InfraCos to facilitate wholesale broadband deployment across the various regions of the country. At the last quarter of 2017, Danbatta, who disclosed that about 60 companies had submitted bids for licensing, said the commission would complete the process last year, but nothing of such happened.

The Chief Executive Officer, MainOne Cables, Ms. Funke Opeke, stated that Nigeria has immense broadband capacity because of the submarine fibre optic cables connected through Europe. She however, lamented that only about 10 per cent of that capacity has been utilised.

Opeke believed that the advantages brought by broadband outweigh this, particularly for rural areas. According to her, “One has to consider the enablement that such access to the Internet would bring in terms of education, job opportunities, entrepreneurial opportunities, access to social services, and the ability to secure our environment.”

Tanzania:Cattle Destroy 600 Acres of Food Crops in Moshi

By Augustine Kayuni

OVER 600 acres of food crops in Chemchem village in Kilimanjaro Region’s Moshi District have been destroyed by cattle.

Chemchem Village Chairman Karibia Mmari said that for eight years now herdsmen from Simanjiro and Bomang’ombe in Hai District have been ruining the village as well as the nearby Mikocheni village at Arusha Chini ward.

“The cattle damaged farms with crops, including maize, vegetables, tomatoes and infrastructure … we have now stopped cultivating rice because as soon as it starts growing, herdsmen rudely bring their herds to eat. The villagers have failed to hold village meetings and speak freely about their problems caused by the pastoral communities which surround and beat us at such the meetings,” the chairman explained.

One of the villagers, Ms Saumu Paul whose two acres farm of tomatoes was destroyed, described how the herdsmen invaded the farm, ordering her to remain quiet as the animal consumed the crops. “I was there with my employee when they came with their sticks and swords … they ordered us to keep quiet, I was afraid of the beatings and so I quietly watched as the herds ate my tomatoes.

I ask the government to protect us because I have a loan that I have to repay,” she lamented. One of the herdsmen, Sironga Nina, said the village have no boundaries demarcating lands for farmers and herdsmen, arguing that pastoralists use their farms to feed the animals.

Moshi District Executive Director (DED) Butamo Ndalahwa said the conflicts between pastoralists and framers have persisted for many years and that she was looking for a lasting solution.

Acting Kilimanjaro Regional Police Commander (RPC) Koka Moita said 33 people have been arrested and will be taken to court, while the lasting solution to the crisis between farmers and pastoralists is being sought. Earlier, Kilimanjaro Regional Commissioner (RC), Ms Anna Mghiwara, said 60 cattle were seized but currently there are only 24 of them, ordering the executives involved in the loss of livestock to ensure that farmers are compensated.


Bodaboda Rider Rapes, Murders, Cuts Off Katavi Girl’s Private Parts

TWO dreadful deaths, befitting a movie script, have gripped Rukwa and Katavi regions, leaving residents shell-shocked. Read more »

Nigeria:Govt to Complete 22-Year-Old Sabke Dam Project Soon – Official

Photo: Daily Trust

Sabke Dam.

Work on the abandoned Sabke Dam, meant to provide irrigation facilities to no fewer than 3,000 farmers in Maiadua Local Government Area, Katsina State, has reached 80 per cent completion stage.

Mr Ayo Obenewo, the site engineer, told the News Agency of Nigeria (NAN) on Monday at Sabke that the project work soon be completed and handed over to the government.

NAN reports that the construction of the dam started in 1996 by the Federal Government but was abandoned.

“We will soon complete this aspect of the project and handover to the government for maximum utilisation.”

Obenewo said the project was in three stages comprising construction of pumping station and water treatment plant, canalisation and clearance of irrigation sites, as well as potable water supply.

According to him, the dam will provide 31.6 million cubic litres of water per annum to Daura, Mashi and Dutsi Local Government Areas for domestic use and irrigation..

Malam Nura Baure, the Chairman of the Rice Farmers Association in Daura, commended the Federal Government over the project.

He said that the dam, on completion, would boost the economy and provide employment to the teeming farming youths in the affected areas.

Obenewo said the facility would also ensure food security, as millions of metric tons of rice, wheat, and vegetables would be harvested, when completed. (NAN)


Obasanjo Attacks Buhari, Asks President Not to Run in 2019

Former President Olusegun Obasanjo on Tuesday, in a blistering and excoriating 13-page statement has called on President… Read more »

Nigeria:6 Trapped in Anambra Building Collapse

Photo: Premium Times

(file photo).

By Emma Elekwa

Awka — Six persons were reportedly trapped when a two storey building collapsed in Aguleri-otu in Anambra East local government area of Anambra state.

Daily trust reliably gathered that the victims, suspected to be casual workers, were under the building when the structure, said to be under construction caved in.

Eye witness, who blamed the incident on use of substandard materials, said it took the timely intervention of the State Emergency Management Agency (SEMA) who alerted other state agencies, including the Red Cross to rescue the trapped persons.

Confirming the incident, a Director in the SEMA, Mr. Chukwudi Onyejekwe, disclosed that six persons were rescued from the building, adding that no life was lost.

On his part, the Chairman, State Material Testing and Laboratories, Ebosie Ezeoke, alleged that the structure was constructed within two months, describing it as highly unprofessional.

He however revealed that the samples of the materials used for the building have been collected for technical analysis and further investigation.

Daily Trust further learnt that the rescued victims were rushed to a nearby hospital for proper medical attention.


Obasanjo Attacks Buhari, Asks President Not to Run in 2019

Former President Olusegun Obasanjo on Tuesday, in a blistering and excoriating 13-page statement has called on President… Read more »

TCRA Slaps Hefty Fines On ‘Unethical’ Media Houses

By Maureen Odunga

FIVE television stations have been ordered to pay a fine of over 60m/- in total for violating regulations governing broadcasting service.

The implicated stations include Channel Ten, East Africa Television (EATV) and Independent Television (ITV), who have to pay 15m/- fine each after denying charges levelled against them, including public inciting.

As for Star Television and Azam Two, both agreed to the charges levelled against them and were each fined a total 7. 5m/- for the same. Reading out the judgments, the Deputy Chairman of the Tanzania Communications Regulatory Authority’s Content Committee, Mr Joseph Mapunda said they arrived at such a decision after going through their defence which was filed by the respective managements.

He pointed further that the media outlets violated the regulations through their news bulletin reportage on the just ended Ward Councillorship By-elections report released by the Legal and Human Rights Centre (LHRC) on November 30, last year.

“For this matter, all the media outlets will be under TCRA’s scrutiny for a period not exceeding six months with immediate effect. However, room for appeal should be extended to the Fair Competition Commission (FCC) for those who wish to do so. The Deputy Chairman also disclosed that the media outlets could not abide by journalism professional codes of conduct by reporting factual and accurate information as released by LHRC.

In that case, Mr Mapunda said the television stations were responsible for human rights violations as per the Broadcasting Services Regulations of 2005 specifically on the content. He, however, noted that airing out programmes which could in turn disrupt the security and peace of the country is also contrary to Section 5 (a) and h of the broadcasting regulation. He said not abiding by journalism codes of conduct, including reporting a well-balanced story, it is not agreeable as highlighted in Section 6 (2) b, c and (3) of the regulation.

Mr Mapunda observed that the aim of fining the media outlets was not to punish the offenders, but that TCRA would like to see that all media houses in the country observe content regulations when airing their programmes.


Kiswahili to Be Universal Lingua Franca

THERE are mixed feelings about whether Kiswahili language should be used as a medium of communication in schools and… Read more »

Zimbabwe:Ariston Posts Impressive Results

Agri-concern, Ariston Holdings Limited’s revenue for the year ending September 30, 2017 rose 19 percent to $11 million on the back of increased volumes across board.

Gross margins for the year improved to 31 percent from 18 percent in the prior year, while operating expenses declined to $4,3 million, from $4,4 resulting in a 2 percent saving. Ariston narrowed loss for the year to $1,761 million from $2,376 million that was incurred in the prior year.

Southdown Estates has remained the group’s major contributor to both revenue and profitability. Its revenue at $9 million was 80 percent of group’s total revenue. Claremont Estates and Kent Estates each contributed $1 million and $0,9 million in revenues, both marginally lower than last year’s.

Stone fruit production volumes increased to 943 tonnes from 776 tonnes as the young orchards yields improved in line with their maturity profiles. Chairman Alexander Jongwe, said the group will maintain the growth trajectory in the coming seasons with exports market targeted in the year 2018 for the fruit. This is expected to further boost the group’s earnings.

Production volumes for pome fruit also improved to 1 133 tonnes from 1 032 tonnes and anticipated to grow further in ensuing seasons while avocado production in 2017 was also in line production volumes achieved in the prior year.

Potato production rose 14 percent to 1 103 tonnes although average selling price was 10 percent below prior year. Banana production for the period under review increased 6 percent to 790 tonnes, while the average selling price remained in line with prior year.

Poultry production was 18 percent below prior year due to the challenges in the supply of day old chicks. The country was hit by avian influenza virus, which affected supply of day old chicks that subsequently hurt poultry firms.

However, post year end, supply had improved. Tea production volumes in the year increased 16 percent on the back of improvements in irrigation water availability. Export tea sales also rose 17 percent to 1 367 tonnes, while local sales were 16 percent above prior year at 1 022 tonnes. The international tea prices firmed resulting in average export tea selling price achieved by the group improving by 12 percent.

Also on the upside was the macadamia production that marginally improved to 1 324 tonnes from 1 317 tonnes while quality significantly improved resulting in a 42 percent upsurge in average selling price. Demand for macadamia nuts remained firm, while product quality was achieved due to the new macadamia drying facility which was launched in December 2016.

Management is upbeat of improved earnings in the financial year 2018 buoyed by improved production in macadamia, pome and stone fruits. Additionally, early production volumes of tea are showing that current harvest is approximately 40 percent above prior year for the same comparative period.

“Early indications on pricing are showing that prices will remain firm on tea and macadamia, which are significant revenue contributors. The group will continue to stringently manage its cash flows as it completes its turnaround and re-organisation of its statement of financial position. A lot of progress was made in 2017 and this will be continued in 2018,” said Mr Jongwe.


‘No Change’ Since Mugabe Ouster – Former Vice-President

Nothing has changed since former President Robert Mugabe was ousted and the whole system must go for any change to be… Read more »

Nigeria:Rights Groups Tasks Fashola, Others On Enugu DISCO’s Operations in South East

By David-Chyddy Eleke

Awka — Thirteen rights groups based in the Southeast under the aegis of Southeast Based Coalition of Human Rights and Good Governance Organizations (SBCHROS) have protested the activities of the Enugu Electricity Distribution Company(EEDC) in the zone.

The groups in a petition to the Minister of Power, Works and Housing, Babatunde Fashola, accused the company of illegal deals which has kept the people of the Southeast in perpetual darkness.

The petition which was also copied the acting Chairman of the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission, Dr. Anthony Akah; the Chairman Senate Committee on Power, Senator Enyinnaya Abiribe, and the Chairman House of Representatives Committee, Hon Effiong Daniel, was titled: ‘Seeking the rescue of the people of Southeast from chronic bondage, oppressive and criminal conducts of EEDC’.

The petition referenced Ref:

Intersociety/SBCHROs 001/012/017/FG/ABJ, read in part: “This letter contains EEDC’s untamed and unbearable criminality, recklessness and lawlessness in the entire 18 business districts of the company in Southeast.

“These findings arise from our in-depth investigation. The joint letter seeks expeditious and competent intervention of its recipients to rescue the people of the Southeast or Igbo people of Nigeria from shackles and manacles of EEDC in the zone.”

The petitioners further stated that “we are deeply concerned over sundry criminal activities and other forms of lawlessness going on in EEDC. Electricity as the livewire of the people of Southeast zone or Igbo people of Nigeria and driving force of the economy of the zone has been brutally denied the people of the Southeast especially since 2012 when EEDC came on board in the zone.

“The steady and affordable power supply and associated social convenience and happiness is speedily on the brink; to the extent that criminal syndicates have taken over EEDC; running riot on vulnerable consumers in the zone with reckless abandon.”

The group expressed sadness that oversight agencies and other

mechanisms such as NERC appear weak or compromised. It added that the failure of these oversight bodies to check and tame the excesses of EEDC has emboldened and escalated the “criminal activities and lawlessness of the company.”

“As a matter of fact, EEDC appears to have become an outlaw; flouting its terms of agreement with the federal government that led to granting of licence to same company to distribute and market power supply to the people of Southeast.

“The most disastrous of it all is the

reckless abandon and impunity with which EEDC breaches the clear provisions of the Nigerian Electricity Regulatory Commission Act (Electric Power Sector Reform (EPSR) Act No 6 of 2005) and the fundamental human rights and other relevant provisions of Nigeria’s 1999 Constitution.

The group ranked the EEDC as the worst of all the distribution companies in the country, saying it leaves its customers with the burden of procuring transformers yet they take ownership of it upon installation.

The coalition called on the relevant authorities to come to the aid of the people of the zone and also prevail on the EEDC to drop most of its hard stance against its customers.


Apostle Johnson Suleman Releases 50 Shocking Prophecies for 2018

The Founder and Senior Pastor of the Omega Fire Ministry, Auchi, Apostle Johnson Suleman, has released 50 shocking… Read more »

Sahwanya Frodebu Party Refuses to Be Part of Electoral Commissions

By Bella Lucia Nininahazwe

Phénias Nigaba, spokesperson for Sahwanya FRODEBU says his party cannot send its candidates for the electoral commissions. He accuses the National Independent Electoral Commission (CENI) of violating the law. He says the whole process of constitution amendment is illegal and against the Arusha Peace Agreement and Burundian Constitution.

The National Independent Electoral Commission-CENI has recently launched a call for candidates’ application at the provincial level to help organise the upcoming constitutional referendum. SAHWANYA FRODEBU Party says, giving their candidates would mean helping them violate the constitution.”We cannot offer candidates who would bury the Arusha Peace Agreement and the constitution that resulted from it”, says Mr Nigaba adding that the Arusha Agreement is the fundamental pillar of social peace and security.

Mr. Nigaba argues that the draft constitution to be submitted to the referendum contains many articles that are against the Arusha Peace Agreement namely the extension of the presidential term and the withdrawal of the former Heads of State from the Senate. He adds that SAHWANYA FRODEBU strictly adheres to the Arusha Peace Agreement and the Constitution it has endorsed.

He reminds that there are Burundians who are deprived of their rights. “Many Burundians from inside and outside the country are deprived of their constitutional right to actively and peacefully participate in the entire referendum process,” he says.

Agathon Rwasa, Chairman of Amizero y’Abarundi coalition and First Deputy Speaker of the National Assembly, says applying to be a member of the Provincial Independent Electoral Commission-CEPI is a personal choice. He did not want to reveal whether or not his coalition has sent candidates for the commission.

Gabriel Rufyiri, Chairman of the corruption watchdog- OLUCOME, says he is against the call for CEPI applications. “The entire process of revision of the constitution is unilateral and antidemocratic”.


Population Acknowledges Bridge Rehabilitation but Complains About Road Quality

Three bridges have been recently rehabilitated in the northern part of Bujumbura city. The population from the… Read more »

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