Posts tagged as: central

South Africa: National Minimum Wage Could Hurt Small Firms and Rural Workers

analysisBy Dieter Von Fintel and Marlies Piek

Stellenbosch University — South Africa will formally adopt a national minimum wage of R20.00 per hour on Worker’s Day next year. There are questions as to whether this is enough to be termed a victory for the country’s working poor? If historical trends continue, our research shows that this might be beneficial for some workers. Others, especially those in small firms and rural areas, may not be so fortunate.

Workers in rural areas and those currently working in small enterprises could be particularly susceptible to job losses as a result of the national minimum wage. The policy framework acknowledges these vulnerabilities. Its recommendations provide temporary exemption for small employers in particular, but none for rural jobs. That means that workers in rural areas could be adversely affected.

We found that most retail jobs were secure after minimum wages were introduced in that sector in 2003. But when we broke this down, we traced many job losses in rural areas. Similarly, many rural farm jobs were destroyed. In addition, if minimum wages continue to be poorly enforced many workers may still be paid wages below acceptable poverty lines.

The challenge is that from May 2018, the minimum wage will be imposed across the country in much the same way. It won’t take into account the different conditions under which businesses operate. The result is that some will experience more stress from a minimum wage than others, leading to unintended consequences.

The case for and against the minimum wage

With its raging unemployment and many low-paying jobs, South Africa faces a dilemma as it introduces a national minimum wage. Higher wages are necessary for better living standards; but wage growth can potentially exacerbate already high unemployment and consequently reduce living standards.

Simple economic models predict that minimum wages destroy employment. However, decades of intense research show that the basic model is not an empirical certainty in all circumstances.

Consensus is slowly shifting, with greater recognition for the role of minimum wages in reducing inequality. Latin America is a case in point where inequality was initially extreme, but declined (at least partially) in response to minimum wages at the turn of the century. One might expect the same benefits in South Africa, which has remained close to the top of world inequality rankings.

Existing evidence on the potential costs and benefits of minimum wages in South Africa is mixed. With the first formal minimum wages introduced only in 1999, local experience is limited. Traditionally minimum wages have been applied only in certain industries and with special provisions. Variations existed by area and firm size. The effects of a minimum wage on employment are varied, depending on what policies are in place and the economic environment within each industry.

Few developing countries have implemented national minimum wages (in other words they are broadly applicable in the same way in all sectors and firm types). This is because informal activity still contributes largely to developing economies. Wages are difficult to regulate in these settings. Nevertheless, countries such as Cape Verde have embarked on national minimum wages in 2014.

Overall, economists argue that wage growth is a hindrance to employment creation in South Africa. For example, in better paying sectors (such as manufacturing), wages negotiated by collective bargaining councils have reduced employment by about 10%.

But the effects in worse paying, non-unionised sectors are not that obvious. These sectors are typically covered by government imposed minimum wage legislation. Only commercial agricultural enterprises cut jobs when minimum wages were introduced in 2003. Non-agricultural minimum wage jobs, on the other hand, have generally been safer.

A national minimum wage therefore has the potential to raise wages without destroying jobs. But we contend that these broad strokes cover up vulnerabilities in vital segments of the labour market. In particular, rurally based and small firms are likely to experience the most stress in response to a minimum wage that covers the whole country in exactly the same way.

The effect on small farmers

Our new research shows that employment on large farms grew after agricultural minimum wages were introduced in 2003. In contrast, smaller farmers bore the brunt of minimum wage legislation whose employment levels declined. By all indications, minimum wages displaced workers from vulnerable farms to those that were already doing well.

Farming has become increasingly concentrated among large commercial operators over the long-run; minimum wages have contributed to intensify this existing trend. These shifts indicate larger – and not smaller – inequalities in agricultural ownership as a result of minimum wages.

Small players must overcome specific challenges – including their wage bill – to remain competitive in local and international markets.

Businesses adopt various coping strategies to survive. An example of this is the 50% wage increase that followed a strike in the Western Cape at the end of 2012. Surprisingly, no jobs were cut. However, farmers across the country increased their defiance of minimum wages. Many more workers were paid below the legislated benchmark compared to before the hike. Growing non-compliance undermines the central objective of paying a living wage to workers. But this illegal practice appears to keep some smaller players afloat.

There was another unintended consequence to the 50% hike in the sectoral wage. Our research shows that agricultural workers who benefited from the wage hike found that other fringe benefits – such as housing and food provision – were cut back during this period.

The eventual path from a legislated wage increase to better living conditions is therefore far more complex than one might imagine.

Rural workers could be hurt

While jobs in the retail sector were previously shown to be immune to the imposition of minimum wages, our research shows that the impact isn’t uniform. Workers in urban areas benefited from higher wages and without job cuts. On the other hand, retail jobs in rural areas were cut.

As with small players in the agricultural sector, retail operators in areas that are separated from central markets face additional challenges in keeping their businesses viable. Some retailers might raise the prices of their products to afford wage hikes. However, customers in impoverished rural areas are likely to cut back on their purchases. Some rural firms therefore struggle to remain profitable.

Vulnerable sectors may cut jobs without extra support

The evidence suggests that minimum wages are not obviously good or bad for all workers. Some segments of the economy – those already vulnerable – are likely to cut jobs when the national minimum wage comes into full force. Time will tell whether a blanket approach will be effective at increasing the standard of living of vulnerable low-wage workers. Complementary policies to specifically support small and rural firms may be essential for minimum wages to reduce inequality in South Africa.

Disclosure statement

Dieter von Fintel receives funding from the National Research Foundation. He is affiliated with Cause for Justice.

Marlies Piek receives funding from the National Research Foundation.

Facts matter. Your tax-deductible donation helps deliver fact-based journalism.

Dubai Islamic Bank Gets Nod to Operate in Kenya

By Brian Ngugi, Business Daily

The Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) has licensed the Dubai Islamic Bank – owned by the United Arab Emirates’ largest Shariah lender Dubai Islamic Bank – to carry out operations in the country.

CBK said in a statement that DIB intends to exclusively offer Shariah compliant banking services in Kenya.

“It becomes the third fully Shariah compliant bank to be licensed in Kenya, after Gulf African Bank Limited in 2007 and First Community Bank Limited in 2008,” said CBK Friday.

The lender has a presence in Bosnia, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sudan, Turkey and the UAE.

End of licensing freeze

DIB’s entry into the market marks the end of a moratorium imposed by the CBK on licensing of new banks.

“CBK welcomes the entry of international brands such as DIB into the Kenyan banking sector. DIBs entry will expand the offerings in the market, particularly in the nascent Shariah-compliant banking niche,” said the regulator.

Central bank said its entry signifies long-standing economic ties between Kenya and the UAE.

As at September last year, the Emirati bank had an asset base of $47.6 billion and capital of $7.4 billion.


Millions Needed to Battle Armyworms

The Agriculture ministry requires an additional Sh320 million emergency funding to combat crop-eating caterpillars known… Read more »

RURA – Regulating for Safety, Fairness and Efficiency

By Joseph Mudingu

In line with its policy of economic development and good governance, the Government of Rwanda established the Rwanda Utilities Regulatory Authority (RURA) to contribute to the achievement of its socioeconomic goals.

PATRICK NYIRISHEMA, the RURA Director General, explains about the mandate and what the institution has been able to achieve in the past seven years. The New Times’ JOSEPH MUDINGU writes.

RURA as a multi-sectoral regulator was established in 2002.The whole idea of the government deciding to put up a multi-sectoral regulator was to create an institution that can build capacity and synergies across different sectors that drive economic development.

RURA regulates all the utilities that include ICT, Transport, and Energy sector, Water, Sanitation and Media

Unlike many countries which have delegated regulatory authorities, Rwanda decided to establish one that is efficient and cuts across all utilities.

From the establishment of RURA, a lot has happened from 2010.

Operational Mandate

As a regulator, RURA sits between the government which is the policy maker, the private investors who are the operators and the consumers.

The regulators’ mandate is primarily to ensure that government policies have been put in place and that they are being implemented by the service providers.

At the same time, we also make sure that the private investors in different sectors are profiting and are able to sustain their operations, getting return on investment.

We also ensure that while in the private sector people are making profits, the services are affordable to the citizens. So as regulators we work between the policy makers, private investors and the consumers.

In line with that mandate then, what we have done as RURA over the last seven years was to build the right capacity to be able for example to have economic regulation tools in place that help us set tariffs in various sectors like transport, electricity and water.

RURA recently started to handle tariffs in petroleum, sanitation services and even in sectors that don’t have tariffs; we put mechanisms in place to make sure that services are affordable, reasonable and fair in ICT and Telecom sectors.

Technical capacity

In terms of building technical capacity, RURA has built technical capacity to be able to monitor quality of service in the telecommunication sector, to be able to manage spectrum and use of frequency in the country.

We have also built capacity to be able to verify international traffic, transport sector by being able to inspect and track and to make sure that the policy objectives are being accomplished and that operators are fulfilling their obligations.


In the ICT sector, from 2010 to 2017 there has been an increase of 5.3 million from 3.1 million mobile subscriptions to 8.4 million today.

On internet penetration, there has been an increase from 1.6% to 36%. The ICT sector received the highest Foreign Direct Investments in 2016.

There has been an increase in subscriptions because internet is more affordable than ever before. In 2014, the Alliance for Internet Affordability ranked Rwanda as number one in Africa.

ICT sector is an enabler that has allowed for connections and communication with suppliers, consumers and partners, saving time and resources.

When the Northern Corridor Initiative Projects created a one area network, traffic grew four times from 2 million minute calls to 10 million minute calls. In-between the increment, transactions are growing and businesses are expanding, taxable incomes increasing and institutions that are IT intensive-based all benefiting.


In the transport sector, a new transport policy was put in place in 2013 and we have since done a lot of transformational changes in the transport sector.

We have moved from a time when transporters in Kigali would wake up in the morning and decide where to operate depending on where they think they can get passengers or change direction half way through journey.

Today there is zoning in the whole city where operators are accountable with specific working hours from 5am to 11pm in the night.

We have moved from having small mini-buses to big buses which of course not only increase our capacity for mass transit but also help reduce traffic congestion in the city.

Some buses on routes between Kigali and the rest of the country have introduced electronic ticketing that has brought a lot of efficiency in the delivery of service in the intercity transport sector.

Though we still have three years to 2020 and that we have ambitious targets to meet in various sectors, we can confidently say that a lot has been accomplished.


In the energy sector we have moved from a time when it was 100% government involvement in electric generation and distribution to a time now when we have a lot of independent power producers in the market who have been licensed to produce electricity and feed the grid.


There have also been significant strides in re-organization of sanitation services, put in place proper licensing frame work, tariff benchmarks and works for the local government to ensure that every single sector in Kigali has a solid waste collection company which wasn’t always the case.

Every single commercial premise and households in Kigali today are accessible by a solid waste company.

For a country that is striving for a clean, green environment, sanitation services are very crucial and for Rwanda there has been a lot of progress there.


Rwanda was among the seven countries in Africa that were able to immigrate from analog to digital broadcasting in record time.

At global level the target was June 2015 and Rwanda was able to do it one year earlier in July 2014 which is an accomplishment worth noting.

Visionary leadership

We have benefited as an institution from the visionary leadership of his Excellency President Paul Kagame where in all these sectors he has taken the leadership most especially in the ICT.

The clear policy direction and the commitment have been given at a national level and from all the other efforts that have created a good environment for investment.

The national effort to create a very business friendly environment is something that has helped RURA in accomplishing her mission.


As a regulator, RURA works with other regulators and institutions that have different mandates in the various sectors that we regulate.

For example, the Standards Board puts a standard in place and based on that standard we put a regulation that is enforceable.

The Standards Board, for example, puts the standards that a petrol station has to meet and RURA puts a regulation that requires all petrol station operators to meet those standards.

Another example is the Central Bank which regulates financial services like mobile money yet it is a service offered by telecom companies that are licensed and regulated by RURA.

So RURA has established an MoU with the Central Bank that defines various roles and responsibilities to make sure that there is no overlap.

For the city of Kigali, we work with them in many things regarding all the services in the city. When the City, for example issues a construction permit, RURA follows it with an installation license.

There is a joint inspection term in the transport sector comprising of RURA, City of Kigali and National Police which ensures that all the transport companies are complying with the laws and regulations and that quality services are being delivered.

So as RURA, we coordinate our efforts with the city of Kigali across all the sectors we regulate like electricity, water, by making sure that all the residents in city of Kigali have access to these services.

One last comment I can make is that we have not had any difficulty in coordinating with other institutions and we have only benefited with these institutions that have played different roles that were needed for private investors to succeed.

N.B: This is a sponsored article

Updated List of Party Nomination Winners

By Nation Team

Baringo County
Stanley Kiptis (Jubilee)
Gideon Moi (Kanu)
Simon Kiprono Chelugui (Jubilee)
Woman Representative
Susan Chesina (Jubilee)
Gladwell Tungo (Kanu)
Baringo Central
David Kerich (Jubilee)
Joshua Kandie (MCC)
Baringo South
Grace Kipchoim (Jubilee)
Charles Kamuren (Kanu)
Moses OIempaka (ODM)
Baringo North
William Cheptumo ((Jubilee))
Nelly Yatich (Kanu)
Joseph Makilap (PDR)
Sammy Chelanga (Jap)
Eldama Ravine
Moses Lesonet (Jubilee)
Daniel Tuitoek (Jubilee)
Noah Chepkech (Kanu)
Rev Symon Kiuta (Jubilee)
Asman Kamama (PDR)
William Kamket (Kanu)
Bomet County
Governor Party
Isaac Ruto Ccm
Joyce Laboso (Jubilee)
Bomet East
Beatrice Kones (Jubilee)
Domnic Kosgei (Jubilee)
Bungoma County
Governor Party
Ken Lusaka
Woman Representative
Reginalda Wanyonyi
Boniface Otsiula
Didmus Barasa
Majimbo Kalasinga
John Waluke
Webuye West
Dan Wanyama
John Chikati
Elgeyo Marakwet County
Alex Tolgos (Jubilee)
Kipchumba Murkomen (Jubilee)
Woman Representative
Jane Jepkorir Kiptoo (Jubilee)
Marakwet West
William Kipsang (Jubilee)
Marakwet East
Kangogo Bowen (Jubilee)
Keiyo South
Daniel Rono (Jubilee)
Keiyo North
James Murgor (Jubilee)
Homa Bay County
(ODM) cancelled
Moses Kajwang’ (ODM)
Woman Representative
Gladys Wanga (Direct ticket ODM)
Suba South
John Mbadi (ODM)
Dr Lillian Gogo (ODM)
Milly Odhiambo (ODM)
Isiolo County
Godana Doyo (PDR)
Abdul Bahari (Jubilee)
Mohamed Kuti (Narc-K)
Mohamed Guleid (CCM)
Adan Kabelo (ODM)
Anwar Kassam (MCC)
Fatuma Dhulo (PDR)
Mohamed Liban (Jubilee)
Mollu Huka (PNU)
Hussein Golicha (Narc-K)
Ken Mutuma (ELP)
Woman Representative
Rehema Dida Jaldesa (Jubilee)
Betsy Kaari Mburugu (PNU)
Isiolo North
Joseph Samal (Jubilee)
Lucy Mworia (Narc-K)
Mustafa Ali ‘Mbuthia’ (PNU)
Hassan Odha (PPK)
Ali Dida Abkula Wiper
Isiolo South
Abdullahi Banticha (PDR)
Abdul Mollu (Jubilee)
Mohamed Tubi (ANC)
Kajiado County
Kajiado Central
Christopher Koisikir
Kajiado West
George Sunkuyia
Kajiado East
Peris Tobiko
Kajiado South
Katoo Ole Metito
Kakamega County
Wycliffe Oparanya (ODM)
Michael Osundwa (ANC)
Senator Boni Khalwale (Ford Kenya)
Suleiman Sumba (Kanu)
Mabel Muruli (Jubilee)
Seth Panyako (ODM)
Cleophas Malala (ANC)
Stanley Livondo (Jubilee)
Woman Representative
Elsie Muhanda (ODM)
Deberious Shikuku (ODM)
Nabii Nabwera (ODM)
Saidi Khasavuli (ODM)
Vance Udoto (ODM)
Prof Stanley Khainga (ODM)
Vincent Mukhono (ODM)
Benjamin Andama (ODM)
Mumias East
Justine Mutobera (ODM)
Mumias West
Johnstone Naicca (ODM)
Paul Achayo (ODM)
Habil Nanyendo (ODM)
Lugari Likuyani (Jubilee)
Malulu Injendi (Jubilee)
Emmanuel Wangwe (Jubilee)
Manyala Keya (Jubilee)
Shinyalu Ikolomani
Bernard Shinali (Jubilee
Mumias East
Benjamin Washiali (Jubilee)
Mumias West
Rashid Mohammed
David Were
MPs – (ANC)
Lurambi -Titus Khamala
Lugari – Ayub Savula
Khwisero – Christopher Aseka Wangaya
Kiambu County
Ferdinand Waititu (Jubilee)
Kimani Wamatangi (Jubilee)
Woman Representative

Kiambu Town
Jude Njomo (Jubilee)
Kimani Ichung’wa (Jubilee)
Gatundu South
Moses Kuria (Jubilee)
Francis Waititu (Jubilee)
Paul Koinange (Jubilee)
Thika Town
Alice Nganga (Jubilee)
Kago Mukuha (Jubilee)
Moses Mwathi (Jubilee)
Johan Mburu (Jubilee)
Gatundu North
Wanjiku Wa Kibe (Jubilee)
Nganga Kingara (Jubilee)
Githua Wamacukuru (Jubilee)
Kilifi County
Amason Kingi (ODM)
Gideon Mung’aro (Jubilee)
Kazungu Kambi (Kadu Asili)
Stewart Madzayo (ODM)
Woman Representative
Getrude Mbeyu (ODM)
Aisha Jumwa (ODM)
Rashid Odhiambo (Wiper)
Dr Harry Mwimali (Independent)
Kilifi South
Mustafa Iddi (Jubilee)
Ken Chonga (ODM)
Harrison Kombe (Jubilee)
Franco Eposito (Kadu Asili)
Mwalimu Menza (ANC)
Michael Kingi (ODM)
Fredrick Nguma (Wiper)
Kilifi North
Owen Baya (ODM)
Mwinga Gunga (Devolution Party of Kenya)
William Kamoti (ODM)
Emma Mbura (MCC)
Teddy Mwabire (ODM)
Peter Shehe (Jubilee)
Kirinyaga County
Anne Waiguru (Jubilee)
Daniel Karaba (Jubilee)
Woman Representative
Purity Ngirici (Jubilee)
Githinji Gichimo (Jubilee)
George Kariuki (Jubilee)
Kabinga Wathayu (Jubilee)
Kirinyaga Central
Wambugu John Munene (Jubilee)
Kisumu County
Anyang’ Nyong’o (ODM)
Atieno Otieno (Jubilee)
Fred Outa (ODM)
Winston Ochor Ayoki (Jubilee)
Woman Representative
Rozah Buyu (ODM)
Grace Akumu (CCP)
Tom Osimbo (ODM)
Kisumu West
John Awiti (ODM)
John Olago Aluoch (Ford-K)
Kisumu East
Nicholas Oricho (ODM)
Joy Gwendo (Jubilee)
Kisumu Central
Ken Obura (ODM)
Yusuf Ooro (Independent)
James Koyoo (ODM)
Kitui County
Julius Malombe (Wiper)
Charity Ngilu (Narc)
Enoch Wambua (Wiper)
Woman Representative
Irene Kasalu (Wiper)
Kitui West
Francis Nyenze (Wiper)
Kitui Rural
Charles Nyamai (Wiper)
Kitui Central
Makali Mulu (Wiper)
Kitui East
Mutua Muluvi (Wiper)
Mwingi West
Charles Ngusya Nguna (Wiper)
Kwale County
Salim Mvurya (Jubilee)
Dr Issa Chipera (ODM)
Chirau Mwakwere (Wiper)
Issah Juma Boy (ODM)
Mshenga Ruga (Jubilee)
Hassan Mzinga (Kanu)
Abdalla Ngozi (DP)
Gonora Kinyasi (ANC)
Woman Representative
Zainab Chizuga (Jubilee)
Zuleikha Juma (ODM)
Fatma Tabwara (Party of Development and Reforms)
Gonzi Rai (Jubilee)
Benjamin Tayari (ODM)
Suleiman Dori (ODM)
Bashir Kilalo (Jubilee)
Marere Wa Mwachai (National Vision Party)
Lunga Lunga
Omar Zonga (ODM)
Kassim Pojjoh (Wiper)
Khatib Mwashetani (Jubilee)
Hassan Mwanyoha (ODM)
Hassan Mwarora (Wiper)
Kassim Sawa Tandaza (ANC)
Mwalimu Degore (Jubilee)
Lamu County
Abdalla Fadhil (Direct Ticket ODM)
Fahim Twaha (Jubilee)
Abu Chiaba (Jubilee)
Woman Representative
Shakila Abdalla (Wiper)
Lamu West
Julius Ndegwa (Jubilee)
Migori County
(ODM) cancelled
Woman Representative
Pamela Odhiambo
Suna East
Junet Mohammed
Walter Sirawa
Paul Abuor
Fredrick Ogenga
Mombasa County
Governor Party
Hassan Joho (ODM)
Hassan Omar (Wiper)
suleiman shahbal (Jubilee)
Hezron Awiti (VDP)
Lawrence Kisilu Wiper
Yaser Bajaber Ford Kenya
Woman Representative
Mohamed Zamzam Wiper
Abdulswamad Nassir (ODM)
Ali Mbogo (Wiper)
Rashid Bedzimba (ODM)
Said Abdalla (ODM)
John Mcharo (Wiper)
Mishi Mboko (ODM)
Masoud Mwahima (Jubilee)
Nandi County
Stephen Sang (Jubilee)
Samson Cherarkey (Jubilee)
Woman Representative
Tecla Songok Tum (Jubilee)
Nandi County Final Results
Stephen Sang
Wilson Kogo
Vincent Tuwei
Nandi Hills
Alfred Keter
Cornelly Serem
Julius Kelly
Alex Kosgey
Nyamira County
John Nyagarama (ODM)
James Gesami (Independent)
David Onyancha (Wiper)
Erneo Nyakiba (DDR)
Mwancha Okioma (Ford-K)
Evans Ongaga (CCM)
Walter Nyambati (Jubilee)
Joseph Kiangoi (Jubilee)
Nyambega Mose (Wiper)
Tom Nyatiemi Mogaka (Restore)
Eric Okong’o Omogeni (ODM)
Douglas Maraga Ccm
Woman Representative
Jerusah Momanyi (Jubilee)
Alice Nyanchoka Chae (ODM)
Grace Nyamongo (Wiper)
Janet Kumenda (Ford-K)
Mary Matini (MCC)
North Mugirango
Charles Geni (ODM)
George Onsongo (PNU)
Ouru Nyaera (PNU)
Joash Nyamoko (Jubilee)
Johnstone Obike chap chap
James Ochieku (CCM)
Charles Ombui (Kanu)
Zachari Nyayiemi Moturi (Wiper)
Jason Mosinga (Ford-K)
West Mugirango
Dennis Anyoka (Independent)
Fred Makamara (Kanu)
Steve Mogaka (Wiper)
Kemosi Mogaka (Ford-K)
Julius Matwere (ODM)
Kennedy Achoki (Jubilee)
James Mamboleo (MCC)
Patrick Osero (Jubilee)
Ben Momanyi (Wiper)
Dancliff Nyaisa Mbura (ANC)
Kitutu Masaba
Victor Ogeto Swanya Wiper
Shadrach Mose (Jubilee)
Timothy Bosire (ODM)
Reuben Okibo (MCC)
Edward Obwocha (Ford-K)
Siaya County
Cornel Rasanga (ODM)
James Orengo (ODM)
Woman Representative
Christine Ombaka (ODM)
Violet Omwamba (Jubilee)
Elisha Odhiambo (ODM)
Julius Okinda (Independent)
Alego Usonga
Samuel Atandi (ODM)
David Ochieng Mdg
Chris Karan (ODM)
Opiyo Wandayi (ODM)
Joseph Alur (Ford-K)
Mj Okumu (Independent)

Taita Taveta County
Thomas Mwadeghu (ODM)
Dan Mwazo (Jubilee)
Jacinta Mwatela (ANC)
Erastus Katani (Independent)
Granton Samboja (Wiper)
Jones Mwaruma (ODM)
Joyce Lay (Jubilee)
anne tina nyambu (Kanu)
Dr Anold Mwadali (Independent)
Elijah Mwandoe (Wiper)
Woman Representative
Priscilla Mwangeka (Wiper)
Jones Mlolwa (ODM)
Rose Shingira (Wiper)
dishon mngoda (Jubilee)
Geoffrey Mwanjulu (ANC)
Andrew Mwadime (ODM)
Morris Mbondenyi (Jubilee)
Ray Mwangola (ODM)
Simon Mwachia (Jubilee)
Cromwell Baridi (Ford-K)
Danson Mwashako (Wiper)
Ruth Lelewu (ODM)
Basil Criticos (Kanu)
Stephen Odiaga (Ford-K)
Morris Mulei (Wiper)
Naomi Shaban (Jubilee)
Tana River County
Hussein Dado (Jubilee)
Dr Nuhu Abdi (Wiper)
Dhadho Godhana (ODM)
Danson Mungatana (Patriotic Party Of Kenya)
Jillo Algi (Party for Development and Reforms
Ali Bule (Kanu)
Hantiro Barako (Nark-K)
Molu Shambaro (Wiper)
Maur Bwanamaka (CCU)
Said Balozi (Ford-K)
Michael Nkaduda (ODM)
Woman Representative
Kureisha Mohamed (Independent)
Saadiya Huisein (Wiper)
Makkah Mohamed (Party for Development and Reforms)
Alfeit Mumbo (ODM)
Melisa Hadida Anc
Mohamed Jughe (DP)
Aliwayu Komora (ODM))
Ibrahim Sane (Kenya Patriotic Party)
Ali Wario (Wiper)
Joel Ruhu (Ford-K)
Guyo Salat (Jubilee)
Weli Abdi Weli (Anc)
Abdi Bile (CCM)
Bernard Matheka (Chama Mwangaza Daima)
Anwar Mohamed(Party for Development and Reforms)
Morris Jilo (Kadu Asili)
Hassan Dukicha (Jubilee)
Bwanaidi Aziz (MCC)
Said Hiribae (Ford-K)
Ahmed Shurie (Wiper)
Ali Wario (Jubilee)
Isaack Galgalo (Kanu)
Yakub Adow (ODM)
Mohamed Dube (wiper)
Uasin Gishu County
Jackson Mandago (Jubilee)
Margaret Kamar (Jubilee)
Woman Representative
Gladys Shollei (Jubilee)
William Chepkut (Jubilee)
Oscar Sudi (Jubilee)
Silas Tiren (Jubilee)
Swarup Mishra (Jubilee)
Caleb Kositany (Jubilee)
Kevin Okwara (Jubilee)
Vihiga County
Moses Akaranga (PPK)
Wilbur Ottichilo (ODM)
Yusuf Chanzu (ANC)
Kennedy Butiko Udp
George Khaniri (ANC)
Jairus Amayi Independent
Billy Nyonje (MDP)
Patrick Kenya (Jubilee)
Woman Representative
Beatrice Adagala (ANC)
Rhodah Mbandu (ODM)
Lorna Obiri (PPK)
Mary Amalemba (Independent)
Alfred Agoi (Incumbent ANC)
Dennis Ajega (ODM)
Ernest Ogesi Anc
Dorcas Kedogo (ODM)
Tom Kisia Ppk
Charles Sande (ODM)
ANC Results For Emuhaya Still Pending
Chris Omulele (ODM)
Arthur Apungu Anc
Charles Gimose Ford Kenya
Nelson Muturi Anc


Media Freedom in Africa ‘Not Great’

Media watchdogs are voicing concern about curbs on press freedom. DW looks at the media in Africa where restrictions… Read more »

Nigeria: Edo-Azura Power Plant Excites World Bank, IMF

By Adibe Emenyonu

Benin City — The Edo State Government’s performance index in promoting Independent Power Plants (IPP) as a business model and opening up economic opportunities has received international recognition, as it became the cynosure of over 10,000 international personalities at the World Bank, International Monetary Fund (IMF) Annual Spring Meetings last week in Washington DC, THISDAY reliably gathered.

This was as the Azura Independent Power Plant, financed by the International Finance Corporation (IFC), which was expected to provide electricity to 14 million consumers, was highlighted to display how the World Bank Group’s collaboration supports the development and implementation of infrastructure development.

The Azura Power Plant project was initiated during the administration of Comrade Adams Aliyu Oshiomhole, in which Governor Godwin Obaseki, as the Chairman of the State’s Economic Team, facilitated the project to the state, thereby making Edo state an investor destination in sub-Saharan Africa.

The Azura power project included the construction, operation and maintenance of a 459 megawatts gas-fired open-cycle power plant near Benin City, and was necessary to add power to the national grid while being considered a priority project for the federal government.

With the ability to produce 459 megawatts in the first phase alone, the plant is expected to be the first greenfield Independent Power Project post sector reform to come online and has been described as a ground-breaking project set to pave the way for future private sector driven IPPs in Nigeria.

A statement from the office of the Chief Press Secretary (Interim), Mr. John Mayaki, disclosed that in a special publication widely circulated at the World Bank IMF Office Complex where over 10,000 participants were in attendance titled: “Nigeria: the Azura-Edo Independent Power Plant”, it was revealed that the power plant was part of a scheme called the Energy Business Plan (EBP).

It was further explained that the sponsors raised a total of $868m through equity contributions, while the power plant would deliver much-needed additional power to Nigeria, and, in turn, the broaden the West African power grid.

“The project is expected to provide access to affordable electricity to about 14 million residential consumers at a fraction of the cost of self-generated power”, the statement added.


Economy Would Be Out of Recession By Second Quarter – Central Bank

The Central Bank of Nigeria has restated that the Nigerian economy would come out of the recession in the second quarter… Read more »

Nigeria: Two Dead, Scores Injured As Building Collapses in Lagos

By Chiemelie Ezeobi

Scores of construction workers were thursday injured and two killed when a two-storey building undergoing construction in NICON Town Estate, off Admirality Way in the Lekki area of Lagos, partially collapsed.

It was gathered that the construction workers were mixing concrete at the site when part of the building cracked and collapsed, trapping many of them under the rubble.

The deceased persons who were simply identified as Tasiu Tanko and Abdullahi Usman had since been deposited at the morgue while the injured persons were taken to the hospital.

Immediately news of the incident filtered out, officials of the Lagos State Emergency Management Agency (LASEMA), and other emergency responders rushed to the accident scene to rescue those trapped underneath the rubble.

According to eyewitness account, the collapsed building took all by surprise as it had previously not given any sign of wear and tear.

It was gathered that the structure suddenly had a crack and partially collapsed like a pack of badly stacked cards.

It took the concerted efforts of emergency workers to bring out the workers from underneath the rubbles, although two were brought out dead.

Already, the building has been cordoned off by LASEMA pending an on-the-spot assessment of the Lagos State Building Control Agency (LASBCA), who are expected to take some samples for tests.

Confirming the incident, the General Manager, Lagos State Emergency Management Agency (LASEMA), Mr. Tiamiyu Adesina, however said although two persons died, they only have one person injured who was taken to the hospital.

He said: “The agency received a report regarding the partial collapse of a building at Nicon town Estate, Admiralty way Lekki.

“Investigations conducted by the agency’s Emergency Respone Team (ERT) at scene of the incident revealed that the structure under the process of casting of the roof beam and parapet partially collapsed as mixed concrete, and the poker vibrator were seen at the site.

“The building suddenly collapsed on some of the workers on site and two adult male named Tasiu and Abdulahi were reportedly killed, while an adult male named Yakub sustained some injuries and have been taken to the hospital.

“The agency’s Emergency Response Team immediately cordoned off the building for further investigation to be carried out by the appropriate authorities.”


Economy Would Be Out of Recession By Second Quarter – Central Bank

The Central Bank of Nigeria has restated that the Nigerian economy would come out of the recession in the second quarter… Read more »

How ODM Primaries Officials Messed Nyanza Polls

By Angela Oketch

Returning officers in Nyanza for ODM primaries may have played a role in the confusion witnessed in most polling stations across the region.

In Kisumu, the county returning officer Tom Okong’o made tallying centre a top secret only for him to rush to Thurdibuoro Secondary School where he announced results as some polling stations were still counting votes.

Aspirants and journalists were kept in the dark and had to move from one centre to another looking for the tallying centre.

Immediately after Mr Okongo declared Senator Anyang’ Nyong’o winner in the gubernatorial race, Richard Kiyondo, the county deputy returning officer also announced Governor Jack Ranguma as the winner while at a different tallying centre.

Kisumu Senator Anyang’ Nyong’o casts his vote at Ratta Primary School in Seme in the ODM primaries for Kisumu County on April 25, 2017. PHOTO | ONDARI OGEGA | NATION MEDIA GROUP

Prof Nyong’o was declared winner by Mr Okongo with 164, 110 votes against Mr Ranguma’s 91,480 votes. Dr Hezron McObewa was announced third with 62, 670 votes.

Mr Kiyondo declared Mr Ranguma winner with 118, 934 votes against Dr McObewa’s 47, 930. Professor Nyong’o came in third with 32,028 votes followed by Gordon Oyumba who garnered 14, 290 votes, Isaka Nyangara was fifth with 11, 936 votes.

After the two announcements were made, Kisumu residents were left confused who will legitimately carry the ODM flag in August polls.

Others questioned whose authority should be trusted. That of the county returning officer or his deputy.

Youths light bonfires on the streets of Kisumu town on April 26, 2017 following dispute ODM primaries results. PHOTO | ONDARI OGEGA | NATION

The returning officers at disappeared only to emerge with the results which they read under tight security.

Mr Okongo for better of the day was nowhere to be seen and was not picking calls from journalists.

In Kisumu Central constituency, as early as 5am in the morning in all the wards, Fred Ouda who is the MCA Gem Central was leading followed by Onyango Oloo and sitting MP Ken Obura was third.

At about 7am, tallying was stopped and short text messages were circulating claiming that the returning officer Laban Bosire had been kidnapped.

Few minutes to 8am, Kisumu Central returning officer Mr Bosire turned up guarded by security officers. He declared Mr Obura as the winner and was immediately escorted out by the same officers.

Kisumu residents took to the streets to denounce move to announce Kisumu Central MP Ken Obura as the winner in the ODM primaries on April 26,2017. PHOTO | ONDARI OGEGA | NATION MEDIA GROUP

The pronouncement of Mr Obura as the ODM nominee for the seat in the August elections sparked tension with Mr Ouda’s supporters going to the streets chanting his praises.

They protested Mr Obura’s alleged victory.

In Muhoroni consistency there were parallel tallying centers.

In Seme, the returning officer could not be traced and there was no one to announce the results.

In Homa Bay, returning officer Erastus Otieno could not explain the origin of the results after noting that he could not reach most poll officials across the county.

He explained that he had authority to announce whatever results he had which sparked violent protests in the town.

He declared Governor Cyprian Awiti the winner with 46,343 votes against Mr Oyugi Magwanga’s 14,661.

Kisumu residents took to the streets to denounce move to announce Kisumu Central MP Ken Obura as the winner in the ODM primaries on April 26,2017. PHOTO | ONDARI OGEGA | NATION MEDIA GROUP

Flanked by Homa Bay County Secretary Isaiah Ogwe and top county officials, the returning officer was accorded heavy security by armed police officers who ejected journalists from the tallying centre as soon as the results were announced.

The poll official could not declare what each candidate got at the constituency level, saying that presiding officers had refused to give him the results.

The results were protested by agents of other candidates who argued that they did not reflect the true picture on the ground and were a sham.

Mr Magwanga’s chief agent at the hall Mr Lameck Okeyo Omollo rejected the results.

After the announcement, contingent of armed security officials began driving journalists and agents of other officials out of the tallying centre.

Zimbabwe: Central Bank Governor Mangudya Rejects Rand Use Demands

Photo: The Herald

Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe Governor John Mangudya.

RESERVE Bank of Zimbabwe (RBZ) governor John Mangudya Thursday shut the door on any prospects of the country adopting the South African rand as its main currency, insisting no currency in the world would reduce misbehaving locals’ appetite for hard cash.

He was however, firm that the country’s battered economy was well on course for a miraculous rebound.

The central bank chief said Zimbabweans were too much fixated on the types of currency to use for their daily transactions while forgetting the damage caused by their own speculative behaviour when they handle hard currency.

“We have said it many times that it’s not a currency phenomenon in Zimbabwe,” he said.

“… If you can’t discipline yourself under a US dollar as a settlement currency, the same person is going to use the rand to do the same.”

Mangudya was guest speaker at Dr Ibbo Mandaza’s Southern African Political Economy Series (Sapes) Trust, an elite dialogue forum often patronised by diplomats and the intelligentsia.

He blamed locals for ignoring central bank pleas to use plastic money while preferring to spend hours outside banking halls so they could then use cash withdrawn for speculative purposes and for expensive exports.

The RBZ chief further said the country was not exporting enough to plug the hard currency deficit.

Zimbabwe’s government and the central bank are under pressure from some locals to dump the US dollar and adopt the more easily accessible South African rand as its main currency.

Locals say the rand use would best suit an environment in which some of the country’s trading partners in the region were already using it.

But Mangudya said Zimbabwe’s economic situation was totally different.

“The use of the rand as a settlement currency is potentially very inflationary when the fundamentals are not addressed.

“Otherwise you are going to suffer from what we call money illusion; you are thinking about too much money,” Mangudya said, adding that a multi-currency system that incorporates the US dollar, rand, euro and others was best for the country.

“Let’s be disciplined first before we go to other currencies. Nothing will change if we just go to other currencies.

“It’s not about the quantity but its usage of money. People have got rent seeking behaviour.”

He said banks were disbursing up to US$10 million daily in terms of cash withdrawals.

The former CBZ chief executive said it was by a miracle that the Zimbabwean currency survived all the pressures it has been subjected to over the years.

He refused to be drawn into comments that the current government’s destructive policies have had a greater hand in the worsening cash crunch.

Mangudya insisted he was an economist and not a politician.

“Those who want to dwell on politics should go and campaign. That one is an open field. If you want to dwell on politics, go and campaign become an MP then you change the status quo by way of policies,” he said.

He was however not too shy to apportion blame on sanctions which he said have increased “compliance risks” on international banks which used to give Zimbabwe lines of credit.

The foreign banks, Mangudya said, have responded by closing Zimbabwean accounts for fear of suffering “contamination risk”.

Despite all the negatives, he said, the country’s economy was on “a rebound” after government and the central bank have introduced a number of incentives to increase exports as well as reduce demand for cash.

Zimbabwe: Where Is the RBZ?


LAST week, we reported that cash barons were on the prowl in the country, rescuing Zimbabwean firms with huge sums of foreign currency to pay for critical imports, but in the process reaping huge profits from the enterprise.

Apparently, the cash barons are working in cahoots with bank executives, and are clearly able to transfer the cash they earn from their deals with local companies, mainly manufacturers, miners, drugs retailers and many other importers of critical raw materials, to their offshore bank accounts.

Reports received after we broke the story last week indicate that some of the transactions involve real cash — United States dollar bank notes paid for through electronic bank transfers.

By last week, the brokers — this is what the cash barons have essentially become — had facilitated foreign payments amounting to US$30 million. This gives a profit of US$4,5 million, if a facilitation fee of 15 percent is charged. This is a very good profit, but it translates into an additional cost for local producers, who will have to factor this in their pricing.

The effect is that prices, which are already on a northward trajectory, will increase the upward momentum. Already, the International Monetary Fund has projected that Zimbabwe, which was grappling with a deflationary environment since dollarisation in 2009, may see its inflation hitting six percent this year.

There are real fears that we may go back to a hyper-inflationary crisis of 2008, which forced government to abandon the Zimbabwe dollar and adopt a multiple currency regime that brought significant stability into the economy.

That stability was ruined by massive money printing, through the real time gross settlement system, after the collapse of the inclusive government in 2013, leading to shortages of US dollar bank notes and subsequently the introduction of bond notes by the central bank in November last year.

As some commentators pointed out, there is a real possibility that the banks are facilitating money laundering through transfer of cash offshore by the cash barons. They may be helping Zimbabwe’s productive sectors and the wider business community to stay in business, but there is a question that still needs to be asked: How does this happen under the watch of the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe? What is the interest of bankers in facilitating offshore transfers for these cash barons when they tell the business community that there is no hard currency for critical commitments to keep our companies operating?

Our article last week indicated that the brokers are fronting political bigwigs and top bankers. This explains why they are able to siphon cash outside Zimbabwe using the same banking system that is failing to support the productive sectors of our economy.

The central bank should investigate this issue and come up with a resolution to our worsening economic situation, otherwise we should anticipate an unprecedented implosion that will significantly disrupt all economic activities in the country.


Minister Kasukuwere Suspends Entire Town Council

Local Government, Public Works and National Housing Minister Saviour Kasukuwere has suspended Chitungwiza Mayor Phillip… Read more »

Eritrea: Provision of Free Medical Service

Asmara — The Eritrean Medical Association in partnership with its Italian counterpart provided free medical service to citizens working in places exposed to pollutant gases. The medical service was provided to citizens who are working in environmental sanitation and infrastructure activities as well as at Medeber in the Central region.

The medical service which daily provided for a week treating 140 people per day included checkup of respiratory system. According to Prof. Marco Bruno, leader of the Italian medical team, similar medical service is also being provided to Eritrean cyclists. The beneficiaries commending the medical service they were provided called for its sustainability.


Family of Jailed Journalist Renews Calls for His Release

When people from across the globe gather on May 3 to recognize World Press Freedom Day in Jakarta, Indonesia, the… Read more »

Featured Links

    Search Archive

    Search by Date
    Search by Category
    Search with Google
    Log in | Designed by Gabfire themes